communication disorders; ch. 1

  1. What 3 things is communication about sharing?
    information, emotion, experience
  2. what are 5 reasons people communicate?
    • to get needs met
    • to share things
    • to protest
    • to share an affect/emotion
    • to make contact/establish and maintain relationships
  3. Halliday's 7 communicative factors
    • instrumental
    • regulatory
    • interactional
    • personal
    • heuristic
    • imaginative
    • informative
  4. instrumental
    get someone to do something for you
  5. regulatory
    regulate someone else's behavior
  6. interactional
    getting to know what others think about somebody
  7. personal
    share emotion
  8. heuristic
    trying to find something out; series of questions
  9. imaginative
    tell a story; role play
  10. informative
    teach or instruct
  11. 3 layers of communication
    social, learning, and spiritual functions
  12. what 4 things are involved in communication
    • 1. formulation
    • 2. transmission
    • 3. reception
    • 4. comprehension
  13. what is formulation?
    when you pull together your thoughts and what you want to say; what you want to share
  14. what is transmission?
    the process of conveying that (speech, etc.); depends on forms and conventions
  15. what is reception?
    has to do with receiving information
  16. what is comprehension?
    what sense you make of the information
  17. communication depends on what 4 things?
    • a. cooperation
    • b. shared conventions
    • c. shared understandings and knowledge; easier it is to communicate with them
    • d. tacit (understood) agreements about how we will go about sharing information
  18. Grice's maxims (4)
    • a. quantity- has to do with giving enough information, but not too much information
    • b. quality- information should be accurate
    • c. relevance- has to make sense in context
    • d. manner- has to be clear and fluent; make sense to everyone
  19. socially shared
    we share the same system
  20. code
    ideas communicated via symbols
  21. arbitrary
    it does not sound exactly like what it is
  22. conventional
    it's all rule based
  23. 3 random facts about language
    • everyone acquires it
    • all cultures have it
    • all similarly complex
  24. 3 important aspects of language
    • semanticity
    • productivity
    • rate of acquisition
  25. semanticity
    represent ideas outside the ideas of here and now; ex. talk about a city far away; ideas that are complex, hypothetical
  26. productivity
    we can recombine elements in language; rearrange; make new meanings
  27. rate of acquisition
    language is developed gradually; however, kids do it with rapid speed
  28. who is rate of acquisition most important in?
  29. language domains (3)
    • semantics
    • syntax
    • pragmatics
  30. semantics
    • meaning
    • has to do with content or meaning
    • words and the words that govern word meaning
  31. syntax
    • word order/form
    • grammar consistent
    • structure/rules of sentence organization
    •  how parts of meaning can be signaled by form
  32. pragmatics
    • language use
    • what we do with language
    • to what/where/whom
    • we usually talk about the same topic
    • mechanics of conversation
  33. phonology
    sound system and how we put those together
  34. social cognition
    • kinds of thinkings that surround social interaction
    • emotion understanding
    • theory of mind   
    • understanding background and context     
    • social inferencing
  35. emotion understanding
    able to understand my own emotions and the emotions of others
  36. theory of mind
    do I know what's going on in your mind? one is based on factual knowledge, the other on emotion
  37. social inferencing
    can i infer how someone will react to something
  38. social interaction
    component of social communication; allows us to realize that others are separate from ourselves
  39. 4 parts of social communication
    • social cognition
    • social interaction
    • language processing
    • pragmatics
  40. language processing
    • language comprehension- understanding language, ability to process words/sentence structure     
    • language expression- what comes out of your mouth; being able to formulate and transmit; how you use words
  41. pragmatics
    how conversations are put together; conversational rules; what we can talk about/how we talk about it; conversational repair; questions/answers
  42. what is language? (quote)
    socially shared code that uses a conventional system or arbitrary symbols to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to others who know about the same code
  43. what is a communication disorder?
    When social communication varies from expectation and is not appropriately functional, we have a disorder
  44. what causes a disorder?
    • Neurological disease
    • Neurological trauma
    • Head injury
    • Anything that messes up your brain, motor system, hearing, production
  45. functional disorder
    we do not see a physical cause for this
Card Set
communication disorders; ch. 1