Chapter 11

  1. Gas --> Liquid
  2. Liquid --> Solid
  3. Solid --> Liquid
  4. Liquid --> Gas
    Evaporation or Boiling
  5. Solid --> Gas
    Sublimation; I.E. Dry ice
  6. Gas --> Solid
    Deposition (Depositing gas into solid)
  7. Types of intermolecular forces.
    ION-DIPOLE- Between ion and dipole covalent bond

    DIPOLE-DIPOLE- Between 2 polar bonds

    INDUCED DIPOLE/INDUCED DIPOLE- Temporary, (London/ Van der Waal)
  8. Ion-Dipole Bonding:
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    Oxygen is the most electronegative; the addition of both forces, equal but opposites.
  9. Dipole-Dipole Bonding:
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  10. Induced Dipole/Induced Dipole:
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    • They are weaker forces
    • Equal but as it approaches the atoms move away from eachother
  11. Hydrogen Bonding: (Dipole-Dipole interactions with Hydrogen)
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  12. Dispersion forces:
    Larger, heavier molecules have larger dispersion forces than smaller lighter ones. Large can induce a dipole more easily.
  13. As polarity ____, boiling point will ______.
  14. As molecular weight ______, Boiling point will _____.
  15. Vapor pressure _____ with temperature.
  16. The ______ the molecular forces, Vapor pressure will _____.
  17. When vapor is at 1 atm, its is said to be
    Normal Boiling Point
  18. When a solid is at 0 --> liquid at 0
    • Melting; I.E. Ice-->water
    • * no temperature change bc it overcomes intermolecular forces.
  19. Phase Diagram:
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    • TRIPLE POINT: s, l, g coexist all at the same time
    • CRITICAL POINT: Phase above liquid, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID- Density like gas and solvent properties like liquid
  20. Cohesive forces
    • Intermolecular forces holding substance together; They pull.
    • In the case of Hg in a glass the cohesive forces are stronger than adhesive forces causing a miniscus.
  21. Adhesive forces:
    • Attractive forces between substance and surface.
    • In the case of Water in a glass, Adhesion is stronger than cohesive and therefore forms a miniscus which takes the shape of the cylindar is is in.
  22. Difference between Cohesive and Adhesive forces
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  23. Gas molecules are in constant random motion. These gas molecules possess high kinetic energy. This high KE overcomes the attractive forces between molecules and keeps the molecules far apart.
    Kinetic Molecular Theory
  24. Still move and will take the shape of the container
  25. Definite shape and volume. Molecules have motion
  26. When rate of gas>liquid is equal to rate of liquid>gas, equilibrium has been established. The number of molecules in the gas phase and the number of molecules in the liquid phase do not change. As quickly as some condense, some others evaporate. The process is
  27. As the temperature of a liquid is increased, the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases and the vapor pressure increases.
  28. Temperature and pressure above which the liquid and vapor are indistinguishable
    Critical temperature and pressure
  29. Add heat (increase temperature). When you reach the melting point, all heat is used to overcome intermolecular forces and convert solid to liquid. Once the entire compound is a liquid, then heat added is used to raise temperature.
  30. measure of resistance to flow
  31. force that causes the surface of liquid to contract to a minimum. It acts like a membrane
    Surface tension
  32. liquid “creeps” up side of tube due to adhesive forces between liquid and surface
    Capillary Action
  33. 2 types of solids:
    • Crystalline solids – homogeneous solid in which atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern
    • Amorphous solids – solid where molecules are arranged in random order (usually large molecule)
  34. How many atoms are contained per unit cell
  35. 1) A point or atom lying completely within a unit cell belongs to that unit cell and counts as one
    • 2) An atom lying on a face or a unit cell is shared by 2 unit cells and counts as one-half
    • 3) An atom on an edge is shared by 4 unit cells and counts as one-quarter
    • 4) An atom at a corner is shared by 8 unit cells and counts as one-eighth
Card Set
Chapter 11
Chemistry (CHM111)