Chemistry EXAM 1

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  1. human body is composed of
    • O C H N (majority in that order)
    • P and S
  2. all organisms are made of
    matter made of elements
  3. protons
    • positive charge in nucleus
    • distinguish atom
  4. neutron
    no charge in neucleus
  5. electron
    • negative charge in orbitals
    • same number as protons
  6. isotopes
    different number of neutrons same element
  7. radioactive neutrons
    • spontaneously decay 
    • (help trace date, disease, trace metabolic process)
  8. atoms chemical properties are determined by their
  9. octet rule
    • •Valence shell – outermost shell
    • •If an atom has more than 2 shells, the outer shell is most stable with 8 electrons
    • •Atoms
    • can give up, accept, or share electrons to have 8
  10. 3 types of bonds
    • hydrogen 
    • ionic 
    • covalent (polar and non polar)
  11. electronegativity
    • stronger pull closer to itself 
    • ie oxygen stronger than hydrogen in H2O
  12. ionic bond
    transfer of electrons (so one is positive one is negative) usually salt

    • cat ion *lose electron positive charge
    • an ion *gain electron negative charge
  13. covalent bond
    electron is shared (even though one might have a stronger pull)

    single, double, triple bonds possible
  14. hydrogen bond
    • electronegative to one another (strong in numbers) 
    • easily broken
  15. van der waal
    • positive and negative charged atoms bond
    • short time because of positioning of electrons in atom
  16. molecule
    2+ atoms with covalent bound
  17. compound
    2+ elements
  18. polar vs non polar
    • don't share evenly (cause slight charge)
    • share evenly
  19. unique shape of bonding of atom determines
    physical property
  20. chemical reactions
    • Some chemical reactions go to completion: all reactants are converted to products
    • All chemical reactions are reversible: products of the forward reaction become reactants for the reverse reaction
    • Chemical equilibrium is reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
  21. atomic  number
    number of protons
  22. atomic mass
    number of protons and neutrons
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Chemistry EXAM 1
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