1. pH/pOH equations
    • pH=-log[H3O+]
    • pOH=-log[OH-]
    • pH + pOH = 14
  2. Ka/Kb equations
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    ka x kb = kw = 1.0x10-14
  3. Henderson Haselbalk equation
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    pKa = pH at halfway point of titration!
  4. pKa equations
    • pKa = -log(Ka)
    • pKb = -log(Kb)
    • pKa x pKb = 1.0x10-14
    • Increased Ka means decreased pKa
    • pKa = pH at halfway point of titration!
  5. What is the buffer zone range?
    pKa ± 1 pH
  6. Describe the major buffer system of the blood cell
    • CO2(g) <-> CO2(d)+H2O <-> H2CO3(aq)<-> HCO3-(aq)+H3O+(aq)
    • CO2 crosses cell membrane via passive diffusion
    • CO2 is hydrated
    • CO2 reacts w/ water to form H2CO3
    • Carbonic acid dissociates into HCO3- and H3O+ which cross cell membrane via passive diffusion
    • Exhale: ↓CO2, ↓[H3O+], ↑pH
    • Tissues: ↑CO2, ↑[H3O+], ↓pH
  7. List the intermolecular forces in order of relative strength (weakest to strongest)
    • London dispersion
    • Dipole-dipole
    • Hydrogen bonding
    • Ion-Dipole
    • Ionic
  8. Describe London Dispersion with example
    • Fleeting interactions between nonpolar molecules caused by temporary diples which induce dipoles in neighboring nonpolar molecules
    • Varying fatty acid length in cell membrane based on temperature
    • Micelles in H2O
  9. Describe dipole-dipole with example
    • Interactions between two dipoles (NOT H-bonding)
    • Hemoglobin subunit, protein conformation
  10. Describe hydrogen bonding with example
    • Interactions between dipoles caused by difference in electronegativity of atoms (F, O, N)
    • Important to 3D protein conformation
    • Water tension
    • Ice < water density
  11. Describe ion-dipole bonding
    • Interaction between ion and dipole
    • Stabilization of Na+ and Cl- in water solution
    • Activation of drugs in blood stream
    • Solubility of gas in water
  12. Describe ionic bonding
    • Oppositely charged ions (typically metal/nonmetal)
    • Soluble, high mp/bp
    • NaCl (electrolytes)
    • Muscle contraction
  13. What is a hydrophobic interaction?
    Interactions of hydrophobic molecules in a water solution to maximize entropy (micelles)
  14. What do osmosis, bp elevation, and fp depression have in common? Which is most relevant to biochemistry? Why?
    • They are colligative properties (based on amount [moles] solute not properties of the solute)
    • Osmotic pressure is most relevant because it has a direct effect on the flow of water into/out of cell
  15. hypotonic vs isotonic vs hypertonic
    • hypotonic: less [solute] and more [H2O]
    • water will flow FROM
    • isotonic: same [solute] and [H2O]
    • water will not move
    • hypertonic: more [solute] and less [H2O]
    • water will flow into
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