ap human geo chap 1-3

  1. agricultural density
    the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
  2. arithmetic density
    the total number of people divided by the total land area
  3. base line
    an east-west line designated under the land ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the united states
  4. cartography
    the science of making maps
  5. concentration
    the spread of something over a given area
  6. connections
    relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
  7. contagious diffusion
    the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout the population
  8. cultural ecology
    geographic approach that emphasizes human environment relationships
  9. cultural landscape
    fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
  10. culture
    the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
  11. density
    the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
  12. diffusion
    the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
  13. distance decay
    the diminishing in the importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
  14. distribution
    the arrangement of something across earth's surface
  15. environmental determinism
    a 19th and early 20th century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activies.
  16. expansion diffusion
    the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
  17. formal region (uniform or homogeneous region)
    an area in which everyone shared one or more distinctive characteristics
  18. functional region (nodal region)
    an area organized around a node or focal point
  19. geographic information system (gis)
    a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
  20. global positioning system (gps)
    a system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tacking stations, and recievers.
  21. globalization
    actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
  22. Greenwich mean time (gmt)
    the time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 longitude
  23. hearth
    the region from which innovative ideas originate
  24. hierarchal diffusion
    the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
  25. international date line
    an arc that for the most part follows 180 longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. when you cross the international date line heading east, the clock moves back 24 hours. when you go west, the calendar moves ahead one day.
  26. land ordinance of 1785
    a law that divided much of the united states into townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
  27. latitude
    the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on the globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
  28. location
    the position of anything on the earth's surface
  29. longitude
    the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on the globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian.
  30. map
    a two-dimensional, or flat, representation of earth's surface or a portion of it.
  31. mental map
    a representation of a portion of earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
  32. meridian
    an arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
  33. parallel
    a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
  34. pattern
    the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
  35. physiological  density
    the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
  36. place
    a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
  37. polder
    land created by the dutch by draining water from an area.
  38. possibilism
    the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from the alternatives
  39. prime meridian
    the meridian, designated at 0 longitude, that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich, England.
  40. principal meridian
    a north-south line designated in the land ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the united states
  41. projection
    the system used to transfer locations from earth's surface to the flat map.
  42. region
    an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
  43. regional ( cultural landscape) studies
    an approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
  44. relocation diffusion
    the spread of a feature or trend though bodily movement of people from one place to another
  45. remote sensing
    the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
  46. resource
    An substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access,and is socially acceptable to use.
  47. scale
    generally, the relationship between the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole, specifically, the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature in earth's surface
  48. section
    A square normally 1 mile on a side. The land ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the united states in 36 sections.
  49. site
    the physical character of a place
  50. situation
    the location of a place relative to another place
  51. space
    the physical gap or interval between two objects
  52. space-time compression
    the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something in  a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
  53. stimulus diffusion
    the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
  54. toponym
    the name given to a portion of earth's surface
  55. township
    a square normally 6 miles on one side. the land ordinance of 1785 divided much of the united states into a series of townships
  56. transnational corporation
    a company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, but just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
  57. uneven development
    the increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of globalization of the economy
  58. vernacular region (perpetual region)
    an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
  59. agricultural density
    the ratio of the number of farmers to total amount of land suitable for agriculture
  60. agricultural revolution
    the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
  61. census
    a complete enumeration of a population
  62. crude birth rate (cbr)
    the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
  63. crude death rate (cdr)
    the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
  64. demographic transition
    the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude and birth rates, low rate of natural increase, and a high total population
  65. demography
    the scientific study of population characteristics
  66. dependency ratio
    the number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 compared to number of people active in the labor force
  67. doubling time
    the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
  68. ecumene
    the portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
  69. epidemiologic transition
    distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition
  70. epidemiology
    branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special cause not generally present in the affected locality.
  71. industrial revolution
    a series of improvements n the industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
  72. infant mortality rate (imr)
    the total umber of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
  73. life expectancy
    the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social,economic, and medical conditions. life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
  74. medical revolution
    medical technology invented in Europe and north america that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of Europe in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
  75. natural increase rate
    the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
  76. overpopulation
    the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
  77. pandemic
    disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
  78. physiological density
    the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suited for agriculture.
  79. population pyramid
    a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
  80. sex ratio
    the number of males per 100 females in the population
  81. total fertility rate (tfr)
    the average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years.
  82. zero population growth (zpg)
    a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
  83. brain drain
    large-scale emigration by talented people
  84. chain migration
    migration of people to a specific location because of relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
  85. circulation
    short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
  86. counterurbanization
    net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
  87. emigration
    migration from a location
  88. floodplain
    the area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends
  89. forced migration
    permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
  90. guest workers
    workers who migrate to the more developed countries of northern and western europe , usually from southern and eastern europe or from north africa, in search of high paying jobs
  91. immigration
    migration to a new location
  92. internal migration
    permanent movement within a particular country
  93. international migration
    permanent movement from one country to another
  94. interregional migration
    permanent movement from one region of a country to another
  95. intervening obstacle
    an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
  96. intraregional migration
    permanent movement within one region of a country
  97. migration
    form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
  98. migration transition
    change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
  99. mobility
    all types of movement from one location to another
  100. net migration
    the difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
  101. pull factor
    factor that induces people to move to a new location
  102. push factor
    factor that induces people to leave old residences
  103. quotas
    in reference to migration,laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
  104. refugees
    people who are forced to migrate from their home country and can not return for fear of prosecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group,or political opinion.
  105. unauthorized immigrants
    people who enter a country without proper documents
  106. voluntary migration
    permanent movement undertaken by choice
Card Set
ap human geo chap 1-3