1. What is a forest?
    A community of plants and animals in which trees are the dominant species.
  2. Define the term bole.
    The trunk of a tree.
  3. What does T.S.I. mean?
    Timber Stand Improvement.
  4. What is the overstory?
    That portion of the trees in a stand forming the upper crown cover.
  5. What is pitch?
    The resin occurring in the wood of certain conifers.
  6. What is duff?
    Forest litter and organic debris in various stages of decomposition on top of the mineral soil. Typical of coniferous forests in cool climates.
  7. What is humus?
    The plant and animal residues of the soil which are undergoing decomposition.
  8. What is spot seeding?
    Planting specific numbers of seed in spots at regular intervals in the desired area.
  9. What is broadcast seeding?
    Scattering seed randomly.
  10. What is direct seeding?
    The sowing of seed on an area where trees are desired.
  11. Of the trees named, which is not a pioneer species: aspen, grey birch and white oak?
    White oak.
  12. What do you do when you transplant?
    • 1) Replant a nursery seeding in another part of the nursery for further development.
    • 2) Move a plant from one location to another.
  13. What is a blaze on a tree?
    A mark cut on a standing tree to call special attention to the tree.
  14. Forest soils in the northeast are commonly basic or acidic?
  15. Name 3 examples of naval stores.
    Tar, pitch, turpentine, pine oil and resin.
  16. What does wind-firm mean?
    Able to withstand heavy wind.
  17. Name two vines that cause damage to trees.
    Grape, kudzu, honeysuckle.
  18. What is a wolf tree?
    Abnormally large, low commercial value tree taking up more space than its value warrants.
  19. What is considered the most disastrous enemy of the forest as noted in the handbook?
  20. What is old growth?
    Forests with trees over 100 years old
  21. What is a browse line?
    The height to which a grazing animal(e.g. deer) can reach.
  22. Name a deciduous conifer.
    Bald cypress, larch, tamarack.
  23. What are suppressed trees?
    Trees of species that could be in the canopy but which grow in the understory with reduced light.
  24. What is a codominant tree?
    Shares canopy of forest with other trees.
  25. What are pioneer species?
    The first tree species to grow in succession from a meadow or other treeless area.
  26. What is a sucker?
    A shoot from the lower portion of a stem- especially from the root.
  27. What is rot?
    Wood in a state of decay.
  28. What is a plant habitat?
    The site where a plant naturally lives or grows.
  29. What two factors slow down the cell division in the cambium during the course of the growing season?
    Lack of moisture; hot temperatures.
  30. What is a prescribed burn?
    Burning used as a forestry tool to manipulate vegetation and prevent fuel accumulation.
  31. What are the 3 sources from which a stand of trees may originate?
    Buried seed, sprout or coppice, planted seed or seedling.
  32. What makes eastern larch different from other conifers?
    It loses its needles in the fall.
  33. What is uneven-aged?
    A term applied to a stand in which there are considerable differences in age of tree sand in which three or more age classes are represented.
  34. Why is it important to estimate the annual growth of timber stands?
    To determine if the stand is growing timber at its optimal rate and to determine the amount of timber available for harvesting.
  35. What is the distinctive branching habit of black gum or tupelo?
    Branches grow at right angles from the trunk.
  36. What is a simple test to determine if a cone is ripe?
    Place in container of SAE 20 oil; if ripe,the cone will float.
  37. What are red knots?
    Knots in pine lumber resulting from live branches; usually tight and sound.
  38. What are black knots?
    Knots in pine lumber resulting from dead branches; often loose.
  39. How can brown spot in long leaf pine be controlled economically?
    Prescribed burning.
  40. The process of gathering information about timber volume, growth, and other factors used to make decisions about the forest is called . . .
    Cruising timber
  41. A tree leader is . . .
    The primary or terminal shoot above the top most whorl.
  42. What are two differences between the red oak group and the white oak group?
    Red oaks have bristle-tipped leaves and the acorns mature in two years; white oaks have rounded lobe leaves and the acorns mature in one year.
  43. What is shelter wood cutting?
    1/4 to ½ of the trees are harvested at onetime. Remaining trees serve as seed source and shelter for young seedlings.
  44. What is a weed tree?
    A tree of a species with relatively little or no commercial value.
  45. What is a sanitation cutting?
    Removal of diseased, insect-infested, or damaged trees from a stand.
  46. What percentage of the types of oak trees bear acorns?
    100 percent.
  47. Name two ways of harvesting timber.
    Clearcutting, seed tree cutting, coppicing,shelterwood cutting, and selection cutting.
  48. What is silviculture?
    The science of growing and harvesting trees in accordance with owner objectives.
  49. What is clearcutting?
    A harvesting method which removes all of the merchantable trees in an area.
  50. What is slit planting?
    A rapid method of planting using a special tool called a planting bar.
  51. What are the 4 crown classes of trees?
    Dominant, co-dominant, intermediate,suppressed.
  52. Cut the best and leave the rest" is commonly called what?
    High grading.
  53. How many cubic feet in a cord of wood?
    128 cubic feet
  54. What does the term merchantable height mean?
    The length of the tree stem from the top of a 1-foot stump to the top end of the last tree section considered merchantable (4-6"in diameter, depending on species).
  55. What is a residual stand?
    The portion of trees left after any partial harvest.
  56. What is stocking in a forest?
    The coverage of an area with trees. Can be classified as over-, under- or optimal.
  57. What does harvest mean in forestry?
    The removal of marketable timber products from the forest.
  58. What are the three major methods for reforestation?
    Natural seeding, seeding with collected seed, planting with seedlings or cuttings.
  59. What are the most common timber stand improvement practices?
    Weeding, thinning, and sanitation cuttings.
  60. What is rotation age?
    The age at which the stand is considered ready for harvesting under the adopted plan of management.
  61. What is an alidade?
    An instrument used in fire towers to locate forest fires. The alidade is equipped with sights for determining direction of fire.
  62. What is an all-aged stand?
    Applied to a stand in which, theoretically,trees of all ages up to and including those of harvestable age are found.
  63. What is an allowable cut?
    The volume of timber which may be cut from a forest under optimum sustained-yield management.
  64. What is aspect?
    The direction toward which a slope faces;exposure; direction water flows on slope.
  65. What is azimuth?
    Distance in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north point of a compass.
  66. What is azimuth?
    Distance in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north point of a compass.
  67. What is a back fire?
    A fire intentionally set along the inner edge of a control line located ahead of an advancing fire. The back fire is set against the fire to be fought, so that when the two fires meet, both go out.
  68. What is "bearing" (of a line)?
    The direction or course of a line in relation to the cardinal points of the compass.
  69. What is a burl?
    A hard, woody growth on a tree trunk or on roots, more or less rounded in form. It is usually the result of entwined growth of a cluster of buds. In lumber, a burl produces a distorted and unusual (but often attractive)grain.
  70. What is age class?
    One of the intervals (usually 10 years)into which the range of ages of forest vegetation is divided for classification and use.
  71. What is a closed crown?
    A forest canopy which has 100% cover and largely excludes sunlight.
  72. What is contour planting?
    Planting so that the rows run around the hill or slope on the same level, rather than up and downhill.
  73. What is an increment core?
    A slender cylinder of wood taken from a tree by an increment borer. Growth rings are counted on such cores to determine rate of tree growth.
  74. What are crop trees?
    Trees which are designated to make up the final or rotation timber crop.
  75. What is an improvement cutting?
    A cutting made in a stand grown past the sapling stage for the purpose of improving its composition and character by removing trees of less commercially desirable species,form, and condition in the main crown canopy.
  76. What is crown density?
    The compactness of the crown cover of the forest, dependent upon a) the distance a part and b) the compactness of the individual crowns. A loose term combining the meanings of crown closure and shade density.
  77. What is a dibble?
    A tool used in planting tree seedlings; a planting bar.
  78. What is even-aged?
    A term applied to a stand in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The maximum difference in age permitted in an even-aged stand is usually 10 to 20 years, although where the stand will not be harvested until it is 100 to 200 years old, larger differences,up to 25 percent of the rotation age, may be allowed.
  79. What is meant by exotic?
    Not native; foreign. Of trees and plants,those introduced from other climates or countries.
  80. What is a surface fire?
    A fire which runs over the forest floor and burns only the surface litter, the loose debris,and the smaller vegetation. Ground fire is another similar term.
  81. What is a firebreak?
    An existing barrier, or one constructed before a fire occurs, from which all or most of the inflammable materials have been removed; designed to stop or check creeping or running but not spotting fires, or to serve as a line from which to work and facilitate the movement of firefighters and equipment in fire suppression. A fire line.
  82. What is meant by "girdling" a tree?
    Encircling the stem of a living tree with cuts that completely sever bark and cambium, and often are carried well into the outer sapwood for the purpose of killing the tree by preventing the passage of nutrients or by admitting toxic materials.
  83. What is meant by "heeling in"?
    Covering roots of trees or plants with moist earth in a shallow trench or ditch.
  84. What is incendiarism?
    Malicious setting of fires, arson.
  85. What is indigenous?
    Native to the locality.
  86. What is a lookout?
    A station or post used primarily in the detection of fires. A permanent lookout is generally equipped with a lookout tower or structure.
  87. What is timber marking?
    Selecting and indicating, usually by blaze or paint spot, trees to be cut in a harvesting operation.
  88. What is maturity?
    For a given species or stand, the approximate age beyond which growth declines or decay begins to increase at a rate likely to assume economic importance.
  89. What is a node?
    A place on the stem where a leaf or bud grows; a joint in a stem.
  90. What is a normal forest?
    One in which growing stock is so distributed by size and age classes as to provide a sustained yield of nearly equal annual volumes through growth.
  91. What is normal growing stock?
    The maximum volume which any given site is capable of maintaining in relation to economic conditions and the desires of the operator.
  92. What is old growth?
    Timber stand in which no cutting has been done. Synonyms: first-growth timber, virgin timber.
  93. What is a petiole?
    A leafstalk; the slender stalk by which the blade of a leaf is attached to the stem.
  94. What is a pistil?
    The female part of the flower which receives the pollen and becomes the fruit.
  95. What is a management plan?
    A written plan for the operation of a forest property, using forestry principles. It usually records data and prescribes measures designed to provide optimum use of all forest resources.
  96. What is pollen?
    The fertilizing dust like powder produced by stamens; functionally the same as the male sperm in animal reproduction.
  97. What is pruning?
    The removal of live or dead branches from standing trees. This may be done artificially or naturally. Natural pruning results from such causes as decay, snow, ice,deficiency of light, etc.
  98. What is public domain?
    Territory over which a common wealth has dominion or control; used in connection with the land owned by the federal government.
  99. What is a ranger?
    An administrative officer in charge of a unit of forest land, usually a subdivision of a public forest or park. Various classifications are recognized, as forest ranger, district ranger, park ranger, and county ranger.
  100. What is release cutting?
    A cutting of larger individual trees that are over-topping young trees, for the purpose of freeing the young trees to permit them to grow.
  101. What is resistance?
    • The ability of a plant to develop and function normally despite adverse
    • environmental conditions or the attacks of disease or insects.
  102. What is restocking?
    Applied to an area on which the forest is being re-established by natural means.
  103. What is rosin?
    A hard, brittle, natural resin obtained from the oleoresin exudate of certain trees.Rosin is a particular kind of resin. Rosin is obtained either from gum that exudes from the living pine tree or from wood byextraction. Wood rosin and gum rosin are kinds of resin.
  104. What is a sapling?
    A young tree less than 4" d.b.h. The minimum size of saplings is usually, though not invariably, placed at 2" d.b.h.
  105. What is scarification?
    Tearing up the earth by disking or dragging to prepare for seeding.
  106. What is fire season?
    The period or periods of the year during which fires are likely to occur, spread, and to do sufficient damage or otherwise warrant organized fire control.
  107. What is second growth?
    Timber growth which comes up after removal of the old stand by cutting, fire, or other cause. Typical second growth conditions may come about in a forest that is untouched so far as lumbering is concerned.
  108. What is a seed tree harvest?
    Usually less than 10% of trees left as a residual stand after harvesting to provide seed for the next generation of trees.
  109. What is a shelterbelt?
    A wind barrier of living trees and shrubs maintained for the purpose of protecting farm fields. As applied to individuals farmsteads, termed windbreak; also called belt.
  110. What is site?
    An area’s ecological factors considered with reference to its capacity to produce forests or other vegetation: the combination of biotic, climatic, and soil condition of an area.
  111. What is a smoke chaser?
    A member of a fire-fighting crew.
  112. What is a snag?
    A standing, dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen,or a standing section of the stem of a tree broken off at a height of 20 feet or more. If less than 20 feet high, it is properly termed a stub.
  113. What is a pure stand?
    A stand in which more than 75 percent of the trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species.
  114. What is growing stock?
    The sum (in number and volume) of all the trees in a forest.
  115. What is a strip survey?
    Estimating timber by measuring trees in strips placed through the stand.
  116. What is a forest survey?
    An inventory of forest land to determine area, condition, timber volume, and species for specific purposes such as timber purchase, forest management, or as a basis for forest policies and programs.
  117. What is a volume table?
    A table showing the average contents of trees by diameter and merchantable length,in a specified unit of volume.
  118. What is thinning?
    Cutting in an immature stand to increase its rate of growth, to foster quality growth,to improve composition, to promote sanitation, to aid in litter decomposition, to obtain greater total yield, and to recover and use material that would be lost otherwise.
  119. What is a trainer?
    A tree intermediate in size which shade slower branches of adjacent larger trees.
  120. What is a forest type?
    A descriptive term used to group stands of similar character as regards composition and development due to certain ecological factors, by which they may be differentiated from other groups of stands.
  121. What is a seed year?
    A year in which a given species produces(over a considerable area) a seed crop greatly in excess of the normal. Applied usually to trees of irregular or infrequent seed production.
  122. What is sustained yield?
    As applied to a policy, method, or plan of forest management, the term implies continuous production with the aim of achieving, at the earliest practicable time, an approximate balance between net growth and harvest, either by annual or some what longer periods.
  123. Are trees in an even-aged stand more uniform in circumference, diameter, site index, or height?
  124. What is the most critical factor in competition among the individual trees in a stand?
    Height growth
  125. What specific crown classes must be removed in order to stimulate growth of the leave trees?
    Codominants and intermediates
  126. From what crown classes are the trees removed in a low thinning?
    Intermediate and suppressed
  127. What is the one kind of wood that is of low utility for almost all purposes?
    Juvenile wood
  128. What is the most serious draw backfrom low thinnings?
    The small trees removed are difficult to sell.
  129. Why do stands that are very dense produce less total wood volume than those intermediate stand densities?
    Too suppressed (too much competition to grow properly).
  130. What kind of stem form develops in many hardwood species when they grow in the lower crown positions?
    Deformed, shortened boles.
  131. Give a favorable result on the crop trees which can occur in a dense, competitive stand.
    Higher proportion of clear lumber due to natural pruning, or straighter, more cylindrical stems.
  132. What is advanced reproduction?
    Reproduction appearing before any measures to establish new growth.
  133. Why should openings in the canopy that occur after a thinning be kept small inmost cases?
    • 1) To keep the understory from growing too rapidly.
    • 2) To reduce breakage or windthrow from high winds.
  134. Thinning usually encourages the growth of what category of trees?
    The leading (dominant) trees
  135. The strength and specific gravity of wood is relative to?
    The proportion of early and late wood in an annual ring.
  136. What is usually the most difficult step in silviculture?
  137. In what form are logs when sold for the stumpage price?
    Standing trees
  138. In what stage of natural plant succession are the more valuable commercial species usually found?
  139. Regulating the composition of species to improve quality of a very young stand is called _______________.
  140. The percent length of a tree stem containing living branches is referred to as
    The live crown ratio
  141. Does the crown or the roots of a tree expand more rapidly after thinning?
  142. Why do stands that are very open produce less total wood volume than those intermediate stand densities?
    Too limby
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