small animal disease

  1. what is otitis
    inflammation of the ear
  2. what is the number one cause of otitis (externa)
  3. what is atopy
    environmental allergies
  4. true or false
    cats have as many ear problems as dogs
  5. what does the normal ear have in it
    • some yeast bacteria and WBC
    • inflammation causes it to get worse
  6. what does otitis externa sometimes do
    • migrates in and gets to the middle ear then turns into inner ear infections
    • common in cocker spaniels
  7. what part of the ear do you mostly see inflammation
    external ear
  8. what are the 3 regions of the ear
    • external ear
    • middle ear
    • inner ear
  9. external ear
    pinna to the tympanic membrane
  10. middle ear
    tympanic membrane to Eustachian tube
  11. what is the Eustachian tube
    • connects the bulla to the pharynx
    • relief valve
  12. inner ear
    • semi circular canal
    • cochlea
    • (viii, CN)
  13. what is the pinna made up of
    • multiple cartilages
    • 3 large vessel groups
  14. external canal
    • cartilage tube
    • vertical and horizontal sections
    • ceruminous glands
  15. tympanic membrane (eardrum)(middle ear)
    white pearly slightly opaque
  16. ossicles (middle ear)
    • hammer
    • anvil
    • stirrup
  17. tympanic bulla (middle ear)
    bony chamber lined with mucosa
  18. what is the inner ear enclosed in
    • bones
    • windows in contact with stirrup
  19. cochlea
  20. semicircular canals in inner ear
    • spacial orientation and balance
    • fluid and otoliths
  21. what is the vestibular system in the inner ear
    the balance system
  22. otitis interna
    • neurologic problems
    • nystagmus
    • balance problem
    • head tilt
    • circling
    • horners disease
  23. what is nystagmus
    • rapid movement of the eye
    • happens if vestibular system is off
  24. common symptoms
    • swelling
    • pain
    • pruritis
    • odor
    • discharge
    • change of character and/or amount of wax
    • head tilt
  25. AS auricular synistor
    left ear
  26. AD auricular destar
    right ears
  27. AU auricular urniversalis
    • both ears
    • this is usually done
  28. what is pruritis
    ichy ear
  29. common diagnostics
    • otoscopic exam
    • cytology-on ichy ear
    • skin scrape
    • swab
    • c/s
    • response to noise
    • BAER test-brain stem auditory evoked responses
  30. common medications
    • antimicrobials
    • antiinflammatories
    • antiparasiticals
    • washers/cleaners
    • drying agents
  31. antimicrobials
    • shot gun meds
    • bacteria
    • fungal
  32. antiinflammatories
  33. antiparasiticals
    • pyrethrins
    • ivermectin used for ear mites
  34. aural hematoma structures
    • cartilage in the middle
    • skin on either side
    • ex)skin cartilage skin
    • blood vessels
  35. what is the cause of aural hematoma
    • blood vessels burst in area between skin and cartilage
    • trauma
    • localized immune mediated
  36. what happens if you don't do nothing with aural hematoma
    • it will heal but will leave scar tissues
    • cauliflower ear
    • painful/uncomfortable
  37. what can you do to treat aural hematoma
    • can inject with hematoma steroids to decrease swelling
    • drain but may come back
    • surgical drainage-do sutures all the way through ear to provide stability and drainage
  38. how does ear mites infection spread
    by direct contact
  39. what can ear mites be confused with
  40. what does dark black indicate
  41. what does dark brown indicate
  42. what does lighter things in ear indicate
  43. what are ear mites caused by
    • otodectes cynotis
    • entire life cycle is on the pet
    • egg-larval-nymph
  44. what does ear mites cause
    a physical and allergic reaction
  45. what are the clinical signs of ear mite infestation
    • pruritis
    • heavy crusty discharge
    • excoriations around head
    • crusts around neck,rump,tail
  46. what is excoriations
    self induced trauma from scratching
  47. can you see ear mites with the naked eye or oroscope
  48. what is auto immune disease
    body attacks itself
  49. what is the diagnostics for ear mites
    • otoscope
    • skin scrapes and ear swabs with mineral oil
  50. what is the  treatment for ear mites
    • thorough ear cleaning
    • topical miticide
    • systemic or topical ivermectin
    • pyrethrin based shampoo
    • *all in contact pets*
  51. is ear mite zoonotic
    slight potential
  52. what is the cause of otitis externa
    • infection/inflammation of external canal
    • parasitical
    • foreign material
    • anatomical
    • systemic
  53. anatomical
    • pendulous ears
    • canal stenosis
    • excess hair
    • neoplasia /polyps
  54. systemic
    • allergic skin disease
    • sebaceous disorder
    • auto immune disease
  55. what are the clinical signs of otitis externa
    • pruitis-scratching and head shaking
    • pain-head tilt, cats hold their pinna down
    • ordor-bread yeast,fetid
    • excessive wax
  56. what is fetid
    rotton nasty gross
  57. what is the diagnosis of otitis externa
    • otoscopic exam-drum intact,canal changes, masses
    • cytology-yeast (malassezia pachydermatitis)
    • bacteria and parasites
    • culture and sensitivity (C/S) in chronic, non responsive cases- steph, pseudomonas, proteus, e.coli
    • allergy testing
    • skin biopsy
    • immune system testing 
  58. what is malassezia pachydermatitis
    • opurnistic yeast
    • normal in small numbers
    • common in ears and skin
    • common in allergic dogs
    • skin gets inflamed and irritated than yeast and bacteria take over so gets secondary yeast and pyoderma
  59. what are the causes of otitis media
    • extension through  ruptured drum
    • extension from the oropharynx
    • drum intact with polyps or tumors
  60. what are the clinical signs of otitis media
    • signs of otitis externa
    • fever and malaise
    • painful when opening mouth
    • signs of ear and oral disease
  61. what is horners disease
    • eye sag
    • facial nerve damage
    • neurologic syndrome
  62. idiopathic vestibular disease in cats
    • treat them with shot gun approach
    • sometime they recover,sometimes they recover partially
  63. what don't you usually see in cats
    otitis interna
  64. what don't you usually do with otitis externa
    • don't do oral antibiotics because gets to the outer ear
    • use topical
  65. when do you use oral antibiotics
    for media and interna
  66. hematogenous spread
    sometimes bacteria gets into bloodstream and lands in different parts of the body
  67. deafness
    • from chronic otitis
    • total ear canal ablasion- ear canal becomes thickened
    • last resort
    • can crush because calcified
    • remove ear and canal out
  68. hyperplasia means
    overgrowth/excessive growth
  69. what does hyperplasia usually respond to
    chronic infection/inflammation which can cause excessive tissue deposits, fibrous tissue and thickened irregular ear canal
  70. what is polyp
    dangling pegliment growth
  71. what do you think about with you see a white cat with open ulcerated wound on head
  72. benign tumors
    • tend not to spread but can be deadly
    • hyperplasia of the canal
    • polyps
    • papillomas-wart
    • adenomas
  73. malignant
    • tends to spread
    • ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma
    • SCC
    • basal cell tumor
  74. what is SCC
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • bad
Card Set
small animal disease
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