Bio. 101

  1. Macromolecules are built from _______.
    smaller molecules
  2. ________ are the four major "classes" of macromolecules in living systems.
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  3. Carbon has ______ valence electrons.
  4. Carbon atoms can form ______ bonds with a large variety of other atoms.
    • single
    • double
    • triple
  5. ______ made of carbon and ______, can be branched or _______ chains or _______.
    • hydrocarbons
    • hydrogen
    • unbranched
    • rings
  6. ______ isomers are compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
  7. ________ isomers are compounds that are different in the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms.
  8. _______ isomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another.
  9. The ______ of the major organic compounds are a consequence of the types and arrangements of _______ groups.
    • properties 
    • functional
  10. R-OH is the symbol for a ______ group, and its chemical nature is _______.
    • hydroxyl 
    • polar
  11. R-COOH is the symbol for a _____ group, and its chemical nature is _______.
    • carboxyl
    • acidic
  12. R-NH2 is the symbol for a ______ group, and its chemical nature is ______.
    • amino
    • basic
  13. Polymers are macromolecules produced by linking ______ together.
  14. The process by which polymers are degraded into their subunit components is _______.
  15. _______ reactions are used to link subunits to build ______.
    • condensation 
    • polymers
  16. Carbohydrates contain the elements _____, ______, and ______ in a ratio of about 1:2:1.
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  17. The simple sugar ______ is an abundant fuel molecule in most organisms. In cells its structure is usually in a ______ form.
    • glucose
    • ring
  18. Disaccharides form when two monosaccharides are bonded by a ________ linkage.
  19. Two examples would be common table sugar, _______, and the sugar of milk,________.
    • sucrose 
    • lactose
  20. Long chains of ______ link together to form a polysaccharide.
    simple sugars (monosaccharides)
  21. _______ is the main storage carbohydrate of plants.
  22. Starch occurs in two forms. The simpler form, _______, is unbranched
  23. Plant cells store starch in organelles called _______.
  24. _______ is the main storage carbohydrate of animals.
  25. _______ is the most abundant carbohydrate on earth and is used to make plant _______.
    • cellulose
    • cell walls
  26. _______ is a complex carbohydrate that forms the external skeleton of arthropods.
  27. A carbohydrate combined with a protein forms _______; carbohydrates combined with lipids are called ________.
    • glycoproteins
    • glycolipids
  28. Lipids are not defined by _______ but by being _______ in water.
    • structure
    • insoluble
  29. Lipids are composed of the elements _______.
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  30. A triacylglycerol consists of one ______ molecule combined with 3 ______ molecules.
    • glycerol
    • fatty acid
  31. These molecules are commonly called _______ and are used for energy _______.
    • fats 
    • storage
  32. Saturated fatty acids are solid due to _______.
    van der Waals interaction
  33. Unsaturated fats are ______ due to the presence of carbon ________.
    • liquid
    • double bonds
  34. Trans fats are produced by _____ and mimic _______.
    • hydrogenation
    • saturated fats
  35. A phospholipid molecule assumes a distinctive configuration in water because of its _______ property, which means that one end of the molecule is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic.
  36. They are made of a _______ attached to one end to two ______ and at the other end to a _______ group attache to an _______ compound.
    • glycerol molecule
    • fatty acids 
    • phosphate
    • organic
  37. Carotenoids consist of five-carbon hydrocarbon monomers known as _______. Animals convert these pigments to _______.
    • isoprene units
    • vitamin A
  38. A steroid consist of ______ atoms arranged in four attache rings, three of which contain ______ carbon atoms and the fourth contains ______.
    • carbon
    • six
    • five
  39. _______ is an important example in animal cell membranes.
  40. Some chemical mediators are produced by the modification of ______ that have been removed form phospholipids.
    fatty acids
  41. All amino acids contain _______ groups but vary in the _______ group.
    • amino and carboxyl
    • radical (R)
  42. _______ amino acids are ones animals cannot synthesize.
  43. The bonds that join the subunits of proteins are called ______ bonds.
  44. Proteins are large, complex molecules made of subunits called _______.
    amino acids
  45. This bond occurs between the _____ group of one amino acid and the ______ group of the other.
    • amino
    • carboxyl
  46. The ______ of a protein is its 3-D shape, which is key to its _______.
    • conformation 
    • function
  47. The levels of organization distinguishable in protein molecules are __________________.
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
  48. The amino acid sequence is the primary structure of a _______ and is what other levels are derived from.
    polypeptide chain
  49. Secondary structure results from _______ bonding involving the backbone. The 2 most common types are ______ and ______.
    • hydrogen
    • x-helix
    • b-pleated sheets
  50. Tertiary structure depends on interactions among ______ and generates the _____ of the overall molecule.
    • side chains
    • shape
  51. Quaternary structure results from interactions among ______ to generate a functional protein.
  52. ______ helps proteins fold.
    molecular chaperones
  53. The conformation of a protein determines its _______.
  54. When a proteins loses its shape and function it is called _________.
  55. 3 examples of human disease cause by misfolded proteins are _____, ______, and ______.
    • Alzheimer's
    • Huntington's
    • mad cow
  56. Nucleic acids consist of ______ subunits.
  57. Each nucleotide subunit in a nucleic acid is composed of a ______ _______ nitrogenous base, a five-carbon ______, and an inorganic ______ group.
    • purine or pyrimidine
    • sugar
    • phosphate
  58. Nucelotides are connected by _________.
    phopodiester linkages
  59. Energy for life functions is supplied mainly by the nucleotide ______.
  60. A compound that has the same molecular formula as another compound but a different structure and different properties.
  61. A large molecule consisting of thousands of atoms.
  62. A single organic compound that links with similar compounds in the formation of a polymer.
  63. The degradiation of a compound by the addition of water.
  64. A simple sugar.
  65. A sugar that consists of six carbons.
  66. Two monosaccharides covalently bonded to one another.
  67. A macromolecule consisting of repeating unit of simple sugars.
  68. A starch-forming granule.
  69. A compound formed of one fatty acid and one glycerol molecule.
  70. A compound formed of two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
  71. A compound formed of three fatty acids and on glycerol molecule.
  72. Having one hydrophilic end and one hydrophobic end.
  73. A compound consisting of two amino acids.
  74. A compound consisting of a long chain of amino acids.
  75. A sugar that consists of five carbons.
  76. A molecule composed of one or more phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
  77. A group of yellow to orange pigments in plants.
  78. A large complex organic compound composed of chemically linked amino acid subunits.
  79. Complex lipid molecules containing carbon atoms arranged in four interlocking rings.
  80. An organic compound containing an amino group and a carboxyl group.
    Amino acid
  81. The 3-D structure of a protein molecule.
    tertiary sturcture
  82. An organic compound that is made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  83. Fatlike substance found in cell membranes.
  84. Polysaccharide used by plants to store energy.
  85. The principle carbohydrate stored in animal cells.
Card Set
Bio. 101
Chap. 3 quiz