Cell Biology Exam #1

  1. 4 key concepts of cellular organization
    • molecular complementary
    • chemical building blocks
    • chemical equilibrium
    • chemical bond energy
  2. cell
    fundamental units of life
  3. 3 characteristics of cells
    • small
    • membrane enclosed units filled with a concentrated aq solution of chemicals
    • ability to create copies of themselves by divison
  4. made more than 500 optical lenses
  5. studied many cell types
    (sperm too)
  6. first to report the existence and presence of bacteria in various substances
  7. leeuwenhoek described the cells he saw in his sperm as
    a forward moving with a snake like motion of its tail
  8. control
    an experiment in whose result is known and well established
  9. positive/negative control
    a control in which the outcome will always be positive/negative
  10. these 2 are key concepts when it comes to designing experiments
    • sufficient
    • necessary
  11. necessary
    if when we take it out, the phenomenon we are studying is disrupted
  12. sufficient
    if when adding it to a system by itself, it causes that which we study
  13. kinase
    an enzyme that adds phosphates to a protein
  14. phosphatase
    an enzyme that removes phosphates from a protein
  15. 5 characteristics a model organism needs to have
    • readily available
    • rapid reproduction
    • amenable to genetic manipulations
    • transparent
    • cheap
  16. 6 characters viruses have to be model organisms
    • proteins involved in DNA, RNA, protein syn
    • gene regulation
    • cancer and control of cell proliferation
    • transport of proteins and organelles in cell
    • infection and immunity
    • possible gene therapy approaches
  17. 5 characteristics bacteria needs to be a model organism
    • proteins involved in DNA, RNA, protein syn, and metabolism
    • gene regulation
    • target for new antibiotics
    • cell cycling
    • signaling
  18. 6 characteristics of yeast as a model organism
    • control of cell cycle and cell division
    • protein secretion and membrane biogenesis
    • function of the cytoskeleton
    • cell differentiation
    • aging
    • gene regulation and chromosome structure
  19. 8 characteristics of roundworm as a model organism
    • development of bod plan
    • cell lineage
    • formation and function of NS
    • control of programmed cell death
    • cell proliferation and cancer genes
    • aging
    • behavior
    • gene regulation and chromosome structure
  20. 8 characteristics of fruit fly as a model organism
    • development of body plan
    • generation of diff cell lineages
    • formation of NS, heart, and musculature
    • programmed cell death
    • genetic control of behavior
    • cancer genes and control of cell proliferation
    • control of cell polarization
    • effects of drugs, alcohol, and pesticides
  21. mapped out every cell of the roundworm that helped with understanding the role of tRNA and the existence of the triplet code
  22. proposed that genes were located in chromsomes
  23. 7 characteristics of plants as a model organism
    • development and patterning of tissues
    • genetics of cell bio
    • agricultural applications
    • physiology
    • gene regulation
    • immunity
    • infectious disease
  24. 4 characteristics of zebra fish as a model organism
    • development of vertebrate body tissues
    • formation and function of brain and NS
    • birth defects
    • cancer
  25. 6 characteristics of mouse as a model organism
    • development of body tissues
    • function of the mammalian immune system
    • form and function of brain and nervous system
    • models of cancers and other human diseases/ gene regulation and inheritance
    • infectious disease
  26. thought that flies could be a good model organism for the study of inheritance
  27. proposed that genes were located in chromosomes
  28. resolution
    resolving power of a microscope
  29. what does resolution do in microscopy
    gives the ability to distinguish between 2 very closely positioned objects
  30. magnification
    number of times an images size is enlarged
  31. if an object is magnified beyond the resolving power of an optical system, the image will be blurry
  32. light microscope
    a microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples
  33. bright field (light background with dark image)
    contrast comes from absorbance of light in the sample
  34. dark field (dark background w/light image)
    contrast comes from light scattered by the sample
  35. cross polarized light (dark background w/3D looking image)
    contrast comes from rotation of polarized light through the sample
  36. phase contrast (light background w/ dark 3D image)
    contrast comes from interference of different path lengths of light through the sample
  37. bright field illumination (grey background and image but dark outlines the sample)
    contrast comes from absorbance of a tungsten light in a sample
  38. the techniques of brightfield, differential interference contrast, and phase contrast
    generate contrast by taking advantage of differences in the refractive index and thickness of cellular materials
  39. is based on interference of polarized light
  40. this kind of microscope technique is good for small details and thick objects
  41. brightness and darkness depends on refractive index of the area
    phase contrast
  42. good for single cells or thin tissues
    phase contrast
  43. primary antibody
    one that binds to the protein of interest in the cell
  44. secondary antibody
    binds to the Fc domian of the primary antibody
  45. how localize a specific protein in fixed tissue sections by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy
    • prepare sample and place on microscope slide
    • incubate with primary antibody then wash away unbound antibody
    • incubate with fluorochrome conjugated secondary antibody
    • wash away unbound antibody
    • mount specimen and observe in fluorescence microscope
  46. in order to use fluorescence
    need to introduce a fluorescent protein of interest in an animal or label a protein/area of interest using immunohistochemistry with fluorescently labelled antibodies
  47. this microscopy technique is ideal for single proteins and molecules
    fluorescence microscopy
  48. after GFP was cloned, researchers were about to design mutations to the sequence and create similar proteins that would have different absorbance and emission spectrums
  49. fluorescent compounds can be sensitive to ions such as Ca+ or H+
  50. this microscopy technqiue is not good for fast images due to the pinhole needing to be moved around to cover the whole image
  51. confocal microscopy uses what as a light source
  52. how does confocal microscopy work
    a pinhole is located in front of the detector. this blocks the light that doesnt originate from the focal plane which reduces scatter and blur
  53. in order for samples in electron microscopy to be observed
    the samples must by labeled with heavy metals
  54. how does electron microscopy work
    beams of electrons are used to produce images
  55. wavelengths of electron beams are much shorter than light, resulting in much higher resolution
  56. difference between light microscopes and electron microscopes
    in EM, electromagnetic lenses focus a high velocity electron beam
  57. 2 types of electron microscopy
    • transmission
    • scanning
  58. transmission EM
    light background with fuzzy grey images
  59. scanning EM
    dark background with 3D looking grey images
Card Set
Cell Biology Exam #1