Microbiology Chapter 3.txt

  1. Ecotype
    Subgroups of species that have special characteristics to survive in their ecological surroundings
  2. Biosphere
    That part of the earth where life occurs, including air, soil and water
  3. Homeostasis
    • Maintain a relatively steady internal state
    • Homeo = similar
    • Statis = state
  4. Biofilm
    • Bacterial cells live in communal associations where survival requires chemical communication between cells.
    • The cells become embedded in a matrix of excreted polymeric substances
    • Consists of charged and neutral particles that hold the biofilm together and cement to surfaces
  5. Quorum sensing
    Ability of bacteria to sense their numbers and then communicate and coordinate behavior, including gene expression via signaling molecules
  6. Cell membrane
    AKA plasma membrane
  7. Cytoplasm
    The internal cell environment in which chemical reactions occur
  8. Cytosol
    If all the cell structures are removed from the cytoplasm, cytosol remains and consists of water, salts, ions and organic compounds.
  9. Ribosome
    • An RNA protein machine that cranks out proteins based on the genetic instructions it receives from the DNA.
    • Although the pattern for protein synthesis is identical, structurally bacterial ribosomes are smaller than their counterparts in eukaryotic cells
    • Reader of RNA to make protein
  10. Organelles
    Structurally discrete, often membrane enclosed, sub-cellular compartments that carry out specialized functions. Bacterial cells also have subcellular compartments that are not readily visible or membrane enclosed.
  11. Endomembrane system
    Designed to transport protein and lipids into an out of eukaryotic cells.
  12. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Consists of flat membranes to which ribosomes are attached (rough ER involved in protein and lipid synthesis) and tube like membranes without ribosomes (smooth ER involved in protein and lipid transport).
  13. Vesicles
    Membrane enclosed spheres involved with secretion and storage
  14. Golgi apparatus
    A group of independent stacks of flattened membranes and vesicles where the proteins and lipids coming from the ER are processed, sorted and packaged for transport.
  15. Lysomes
    Somewhat circular membrane enclosed sacs containing digestive (hydrolytic) enzymes and are derived from the Golgi apparatus and in protozoal cells break down captured food materials.
  16. Microcompartments
    Areas of bacteria cells that represent a type of organelle
  17. Cellular respiration
    • All cells convert chemical energy into cellular energy for cellular work.
    • In eukaryotic microbes, this occurs in the cytosol and mitochondria
    • In prokaryotic microbes this occurs in the cytosol and cell membrane
  18. Photosynthesis
    • Conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
    • Some bacteria such as cyanobacteria can do this
  19. Cytoskeleton
    Interconnected system of cytoplasmic fibers, threads, and interwoven molecules that give structure to the cell and assist in the transport of materials throughout the cell. Bacterial cells don't have a cytoskeleton.
  20. Centrosome
    Microtubules that are the main components of the cytoskeleton and originate from the centrosome and microfilaments, each assembled from different protein subunits.
  21. Flagella
    Mechanical force for motility
  22. Cilia
    • Protozoa movement.
    • Bacteria don't have
  23. Prokaryote/Eukaryote Similarities
    • Homeostasis is an organism's ability to maintain a stable internal state
    • Many prokaryotes live in communal associations called biofilms
    • Myxobacteria live in a social community dependent on cell-to-cell interaction and communication
    • Prokaryotes carry out many of the same cellular processes as eukaryotes
    • All organisms have similar genetic organization whereby heredity material is expressed
    • Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have internal compartments
    • Metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm
    • Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis
    • Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes use flagella for motility, though the flagella differ structurally and functionally in the two groups
    • Many prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a cell wall to help maintain water balance
  24. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Structural Distinctions
    • Eukaryotes have membrane-enclosed organelles
    • Protein/lipid transport in eukaryotes is carried out by the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus
    • Mitochondria perform cellular respiration in eukaryotes
    • Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes can perform photosynthesis
  25. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Structural Distinctions
    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton gives the cell structure and transports materials within the cell
  26. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Differences
    • Prokaryote
    • No organelles
    • 1 circular chromosome
    • Smaller ribosomes
    • Complex cell wall
    • Eukaryote
    • Organelles
    • More than one chromosome
    • Larger ribosomes
    • No or simple cell wall
  27. Prokaryotic cells contain
    • Cytoplasm
    • Ribosome
    • Chromosome (DNA)
    • Cell wall
    • Cell membrane
  28. Eukaryotic cells contain
    • Centrosome
    • Flagellum
    • Free ribosomes
    • Mitochondion
    • Nuclear evelope
    • Chromosomes (DNA)
    • Ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum
    • Cilla
    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Plasma membrane
    • Lysosome
    • Cytoplasm
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Metabolism
    • All the chemical reactions occurring in an organism or cell
  29. Taxonomy
    Classify organisms
  30. Taxonomic Classification
    • Domain - ie Eukarya
    • Kingdom - ie Animalia
    • Phylum - ie Chordata
    • Class - ie Mammalia
    • Order - ie Primates
    • Family - ie Hominidae
    • Genus - Homo
    • Species - sapiens
    • Subspecies
    • Strain
    • Morphotype
    • Variety
  31. Kingdoms
    • Monera - Prokaryotae, bacteria
    • Protistas - make own food & move
    • Fungi - Don't make their own food
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  32. Carolus Linnaeus
    In the mid-1700s, Carolus Linnaeus published Systema Naturae, establishing a uniform system for naming organisms
  33. Organism Names
    Each name includes two words, the genus and the specific epithet
  34. Parts of a microscope
    • Ocular lens
    • Objective lens
    • Stage
    • Condenser
    • Light source
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Microbiology Chapter 3.txt
Microbiology Chapter 3