what is matter composed of?
What is the smallest part of an element?
What is ionization?
adding or removing an electron from an atom
what is it called when two or more atoms are chemically united?
- i.e. 2 H+ atoms combined with 1 02 atom forms one water molecule
What is the smallest particle of a compound?
What are the thre basic subatomic particles of atoms?
protons neutrons and electrons
What is the nucleus?
What does it contain in and around it/
- it is a small dense center of the atom
- it contains nucleons, protons and electrons
What is it called when an atom gains or loses an electron?
How does an atom become a positive or negative ion?
If an electron is removed the atom becomes more positive (possesses an extra positive charge
If an electron is added to the atom it becomes a negative ion (possesses an extra negative charge)
what determines the level or shell the electron occupies?
the distance from the nucleus
Does changing the number of nuetrons or electrons change the element?
what is electron binding energy?
- energy needed to eject electron from an atom
- i.e. in reletion to how close an electron is to the nucleus
the closer the electron is to the nucleus, the more tightly it is bound to its orbit shell
the closer an electron is to the nucleus _____?
the higher the electron binding energy is and the more difficult it is to remove the electron from the atom
What is the orbital shell closest to the nucleus called?and the rest?
K-shell the next shell is called the L-shell, then the M-, N-, O-, P- and finally the Q-shell
In a neutral atom, the number of protons and electrons are equal?
What is the maximum electrons in each shell K,L,M,N,O,P,Q shells?
K = 2L = 8M = 18N = 32O = 50P = 72Q = 98
So what shell does the atom H+ orbit in?
- the K-shell because the mximum limit of electrons is 2
- H+ has 1 on proton and one electron together it is 2
what is the octet rule?
when the outermost shell never exceeds 8 electrons
what is the unit of measurement in a binding electron
electron volt (eV)
what is the smallest quantitty of any eltromagnetic radiation?
what are the different types of EM radiation?
heat, radio, television, radar, visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, diagnostic, therapeutic, gamma and cosmic.
What is the wave particle duality?
Under certain circumstances EM radiation behaves as a wave and at other times it behaves as a particle.
What does all Em photons have specifically?
certain wavwelengths and frequencies
Where are low frequencies and long wavelengths located on the EM spectrum?
on the bottom
radiowaves and microwaves
where are high frequency and short wavelengths located on the Em spectrum?
at the top and those include gamma and x-rays, with associated high frequencies and short wavelengths
what happens when high frequency EM radiation interact with matter?
it begins to form and act as photon (beam)
what is a small bundle of energy known as?
Photon energy and frequency are directly porpotional?
T or F
who discovered the first xray in 1895?
German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen.
What are the first 6 x ray properties?
1.Highly penetrating, invisible rays which are a form of electromagnetic radiation.
2.Are electrically neutral and therefore not affected by either electric or magnetic fields.
3. Can be produced over a wide variety of energies and wavelengths.
4. Release very small amounts of heat upon passing through matter.
5. Travel in straight lines.
6. Travel at the speed of light.
What are the last 6 x ray properties?
7. Can ionize matter.
8. Can cause fluorescence of certain crystals.
9. Cannot be focused by a lens.
10. Affect photographic film.
11. Produce chemical and biological changes in matter through ionization and excitation.
12. Produce secondary and scatter radiation