Program and Design Chapter 2

  1. Application
    is a program that you execute to accomplish some task, such as preparing a paycheck, placing a customer order, or playing a game.
  2. Method
    is a named set of statements that performs some task or group of tasks
  3. Main Method
    The main method is most programming languages has a name similar to main(). If a class contains a main() method, then it is an application. If an application contains multiple methods, the main() method executes first.
  4. Identifier
    is the name of a programming object, for example a class, method, or variable.
  5. Camel Casing
    a style that increases readability by capitalizing the first letter of new words. The format is so named because identifiers appear to have 'Humps' in the middle.
  6. Upper Camel Casing or Pascal casing
    class names typically use an initial uppercase letter
  7. Interactive Programs
    Frequently ask a user to enter data by typing it from a keyboard or selecting options with a mouse
  8. Batch programs
    which operate on large quantities of data without human intervention for each record, accept data from a storage device such as a disk.
  9. Variables
    which are named memory locations with contents that can change.
  10. Numeric Constant
    A specific numeric value is called a numeric constant because it does not change
  11. Variable Declaration
    is a statement that provides a data type and an identifier for a variable
  12. Data type
    classification that describes what values can be held by the item, how the item is stored in computer memory, what operations can be performed on the data item.
  13. Numeric variable
    one that can hold digits and have mathematical operations performed on it
  14. Magic number
    an unnamed constant
  15. Internal Documentation
    describes explanations and clarifications that appear within the same document as the programs source code
  16. External documentation
    Supporting documents outside the program
  17. Keywords
    constitute the limited word set that is reserved in a language
  18. White space
    describes any character that appears to be empty, such as a space or tab
  19. class header
    starts a class; it contains the word class and an identifier
  20. Method header
    starts a method, It contains an identifier followed by parentheses
  21. Garbage
    describes the unknown values that reside in variables that have not been initialized.
  22. Integer
    whole number
  23. floating point
    a number with decimal points
  24. Real number
    floating-point numbers
  25. String Variable
    can hold text that includes letters, digits, and special characters such as punctuation marks
  26. Type Casting
    is the act of converting data from one type to another
  27. named constant
    similar to a variable, except that its value cannot change after the first assignment.
  28. Overhead
    describes the extra resources a task requires
  29. Assignment statement
    assigns a value from the right of an assignment operator to the variable or constant on the left of the assignment operator
  30. Assignment Operator
    is the equal sign; it is used to assign a value to the variable or constant on its left
  31. binary operator
    is an operator that requires two operands-one on each side
  32. Operand
    is a value that is manipulated by an operator
  33. lvalue
    is the memory address identifier to the left of an assignment operator
  34. rvalue
    is an operand to the right of an assignment operator
  35. Rules of precedence
    dictate the order in which operations in the same statement are carried out
  36. Order of Operations
    describes the rules of precedence
  37. Self-documenting
    programs contain meaningful data, method, and class names that describe their purpose
  38. Data Dictionary
    a list of every variable name used in a program, along with its type, size, and description
  39. Temporary variable(or work variable)
    is a working variable that you use to hold intermediate results during a programs execution
  40. Prompt
    is a message that is displayed on a monitor to ask the user for a response and perhaps explain how that response should be formatted
  41. Echoing input
    is the act of repeating input back to a user either in a subsequent prompt or in ouput
  42. Structure
    is a basic unit of programming logic
  43. Sequence structure
    contains steps that execute in order with no option of branching to skip or repeat any of the tasks
  44. Selection structure
    Contains a decision in which the logic can break in one of two paths
  45. Loop Structure
    repeats instructions based on a decision
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Program and Design Chapter 2
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