A group of people who work together to achieve some specific purpose is what?
What is defined as "1) the pursuit of organization goals efficiently and effectively by 2) integrating the work of people through 3) planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organizations resources"?
"The means" To be _____ means to use resources wisely and cost-effectively.
"The ends" To be _____ effective means to achieve results, to make the right decisions and to successfully carry then out so that they achieve the organization's goals.
What are the four rewards of studying management?
- 1) Understand how to deal with organizations from the outside.
- 2) Understand how to relate to your supervisors.
- 3) Understand how to interact with coworkers.
- 4) Understand how to manage yourself in the workplace.
What are the rewards of practicing management?
- 1) Experience a sense of accomplishment.
- 2) Stretch your abilities and magnify your range.
- 3) Build a catalog of successful products or services.
The ability of an organization to produce goods or services more effectively than competitors do, thereby, outperforming them is what?
In order to have a competitive advantage you must stay ahead in what four areas?
- 1) Being responsive to customers.
- 2) Innovation
- 3) Quality
- 4) Efficiency
What are three implications of e-business?
- 1) Far ranging e-management and e-communication.
- 2) Accelerated decision making, conflict, and stress.
- 3) Changes in organizational structure, jobs, goal setting, and knowledge management.
The implementing of systems and practices to increase the sharing of knowledge and information through-out an organization is what?
Economic development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is what?
What are the four functions of management?
- 1) Planning
- 2) Organizing
- 3) Leading
- 4) Controlling
What type of managers make long term decisions about the overall direction of the organization and establish the objectives, policies, and strategies for it?
What managers implement the policies and plans of the people above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the people below them?
What type of managers make short term operating decisions, directing the daily task of non-managerial personnel?
What is the difference between a functional manager and a general manager?
- Functional manager - responsible for just one organizational activity
- General manager - responsible for several organizational activites
What are three of Mintzberg's findings?
- 1) A manager relies more on verbal than on written communication.
- 2) A manager works long hours at an intense pace.
- 3) A manager's work is characterized by fragmentation, brevity, and variety.
What are the three types of managerial roles?
- 1) Interpersonal Roles
- 2) Informational Roles
- 3) Decisional Roles
In their ______ managers interact with people inside and outside their work units. Roles include figurehead, leader, and liaison.
In their three __________ as monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson, managers receive and communication information with people inside and outside the organization.
In their _______, managers use information to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities. Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
What is the process of taking risks to try to create a new enterprise?
Someone who sees a new opportunity for a product/service and launches a business to try to realize it is a what?
Someone who works inside an existing organization who sees and opportunity for a product/service and mobilizes the organizations' resources to try to realize it is what?
What is the difference between a necessity entrepreneur and a opportunity entrepreneur?
- Necessity entrepreneur- suddenly must earn a living and are simply trying to replace lost income and are hoping a job comes along.
- Opportunity entrepreneur- start their own business out of a burning desire rather than because they lost a job.
Robert Kanz found that through education and experience managers acquire three principal skills. What are the three skills?
Technical, conceptual, and human.
What are technical skills?
Job specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field.
What is conceptual skills?
The ability to think analytically. To visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the parts work together.
What is human skills?
The ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done.
What are the four skills companies seek top managers?
- 1) The ability to motivate and engage others.
- 2) The ability to communicate.
- 3) Work experience outside the US
- 4) High energy levels to meet the demands of the global world.
Who is "the creator and inventor of modern management", published the Practice of Management, and said the management was one for the major social innovations of the 20th century. "No business without a customer".
_______ means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision making process.
Who coined evidence-based management?
Hint: 2 people
Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton
What are the two perspectives about management?
Historical and contemporary
What are the three viewpoints under the historical perspective about management?
classical, behavioral, and quantitative
What are the three viewpoints under the contemporary perspective about management?
systems, contingency, and quality-management
What are the five good reasons for studying theoretical perspectives?
Understanding the present, guide to action, source of new ideas, clues to meaning of your manager's decisions, and clues to the meaning of outside events.
The _____ viewpoint emphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently.
What are the two branches of the classical viewpoint? And what perspective does the classical viewpoint fall under?
- Scientific management and administrative.
- Historical perspective
_______ emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers. Who were the two chief proponents?
- Scientific management.
- Frederick W. Taylor and
- Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
What is soldiering?
Who coined that term?
- Deliberately working at less than full capacity.
- Frederick W. Taylor
The four principles of science that could eliminate soldiering are what?
- 1) Scientifically study each part of the task.
- 2) Carefully select workers with the right abilities.
- 3) Give workers the training and incentives to do the task.
- 4) Use scientific principles to plan the work methods.
_____ management is concerned with managing the total organization. What perspective does this fall under?
- Historical perspective under classical viewpoint.
Who were the pioneering theorists behind administrative management?
Henri Fayol and Max Weber.
Why is Fayol important?
He was the first to identify the major functions of management. Ex. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Max Weber believed the to have better performing organization you should have five positive bureaucratic features. What are they?
- A well defined hierarchy of authority.
- Formal rules and procedures.
- A clear division of labor.
- Careers based on merit.
What is the problem with the Classical viewpoint?
It is mechanistic. It tends to view human as cogs in a machine, not taking into account the importance of human needs.
The ________ viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.
What are the three phases of the behavioral viewpoint?
Early behavioralism, the human relations movement, and behavioral science.
The three people who pioneered behavioral theory were?
Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Elton Mayo.
Who was Hugo Munsterberg?
The father of industrial psychology.
Munsterberg suggested the psychologists contribute to industry in three ways. What are they?
- Study jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobs.
- Identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work.
- Devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests.
Who was Mary Parker Follett and why was she important?
She was a social worker and social philosopher that thought organizations should be more democratic , with managers and employees working cooperatively.
What were Mary Parker Follett's 3 most important ideas?
- That organizations should be treated as "communities".
- Conflicts should be resolved by having managers and workers talk over their differences and find solutions to satisfy both parties.
- The work process should be under the control of workers with the relevant knowledge, rather than of managers, who should act as facilitators.
Who is Elton Mayo?
Did the Hawthorne studies, which investigated whether workplace lighting level affected worker productivity.
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
Employees worked harder if they received added attention. If they thought the managers cared about their welfare, and if supervisors paid special attention to them.
The _____ proposed that better human realizations could increase worker productivity.
Human relations movement.
The two theorists who contributed most to the human relation movement were?
Maslow and McGregor
What is Maslow most known for?
Hierarchy of human needs
What is the hierarchy of human needs?
physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization
What was McGregor known for?
Theory X and Theory Y
What is the difference between Theory X and Theory Y?
- Theory X- represents a pessimistic negative view of workers.
- Theory Y - represents the outlook of human relations proponents, an optimistic positive view of worker.
Why is Theory X/Theory Y important?
To help managers understand how their beliefs affect their behavior.
_______ relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers.
______ is the application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations. Also, what are the two branches under this?
- Quantitative management.
- Management science and operations management.
______ focuses on using math to aid in problem solving and decision making.
______ focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.
The contemporary perspective consists of what three viewpoints?
Systems, contingency, and quality management.
The _________ regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts.
What are the four parts of a system?
Inputs, transformation processes, outputs and feedback.
What is the difference between open and closed systems?
- Open - continuously interacts with the environment.
- Closed - has little interaction with the environment.
The _______ emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to the individual and the environmental situation.
The ______ includes quality control, quality assurance, and quality managment.
Quality Management viewpoint
What is the difference between quality control and quality assurance?
- Quality control is the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production.
- Quality assurance focuses on the performance of the workers urging employees to strive for "zero defects".
_______ is a comprehensive approach - led by top management and supported throughout the organization - dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction.
Total quality management.
What are the four components of total quality management?
- Make continuous improvement a priority.
- Get every employee involved.
- Listen to and learn from customers and employees.
- Use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problems.
A ________ is an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge.
What are the three parts of a learning organization?
- Creating and acquiring knowledge.
- Transferring knowledge.
- Modifying behavior.
To create a learning organization managers must perform what three key functions/roles?
- Build a commitment to learning.
- Work to generate ideas with impact.
- Generalize ideas with impact.
Who are the people whose interest are affected by an organization's activities?
What three groups make up the internal stakeholders?
Employees, Owners, and Board of Directors.
Who are the people or groups in the organization's external environment that are affected by it? And what are the two environments?
- External stakeholders
- Task and general environments
What are the 11 groups that consist the task environment?
customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, employee organizations, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special interest groups, and mass media.
What are the six forces that make up the general environment?
economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international.
A situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal is called what?
What are the relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person's behavior?
What are the four approaches to ethical dilemmas?
Utilitarian, Individual, Moral-rights, Justice
What approach is guided by the greatest good for the greatest number of people?
What approach is guided by what will result in the individual's best long term interest which ultimately are in everyones self interest?
What approach is guided by respect of fundamental rights of human beings?
What approach is guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity?
What is the act that established requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies and penalties of as much as 25 years in prison?
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
According to Kohlberg what are the three levels of personal moral development?
Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
What does the preconventional level state?
you follow rules
What does the level of conventional state?
They follow the expectations of others.
What does the postconventional level say?
Guided by internal values.
How can an organization promote high ethical standards on the job?
creating a strong ethical climate, screening prospective employees, instituting ethic codes and training program, rewarding ethical behavior: protecting whistle-blowers.
A manager's duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization is called what?
What is the system of governing a company so that the interests of the corporate owners and other stakeholders are protected?
What is the trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system?
The ___ ____ refers to the "shrinking" of time and space as air travel and the electronic media have made it easier for the people around the globe to communicate with one another.
What is the buying and selling of products and services through computer networks?
What term refers to the increasing tendency of the economies of the world to interact with one another as one market instead of many national markets?
What is the difference between a multinational corporation and a multinational organization?
- corp - is a business firm with operations in several countries
- org - nonprofit org with operations in several countries
What type of manager believe that their native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior to all others?
What is parochialism?
A narrow view in which people see things solely through their own perspective.
What type of managers take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone?
What type of managers accept that there are differences and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices and that they should use whatever techniques are most effective?
Why do companies expand internationally?
Availability of supplies, new markets, lower labor costs, access to finance capital, and avoidance of tariffs and import quotas.
What is the term that is defined as using suppliers outside the company to provide goods and services?
What is it when a company buys goods outside the country and resells them domestically?
What is it when a company produces goods domestically and sells them outside the country?
What are the two differences terms that mean "get together with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign country"?
Joint venture / strategic alliance
A ____ is a trade barrier in the form of a customs duty, or tax, levied mainly on imports.
A _____ is a trade barrier in the form of a limit on the numbers of a product that can be imported.
A ______ is a complete ban on the import or export of certain products.
The ___ ___ ___ is designed to monitor and enforce trade agreements. How many member countries?
- World Trade Organization
- 153 members
The ________ is to provide low-interest loans to developing nations for improving transportation, education, health, and telecommunications.
The World Bank
The _________ is designed to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations.
International Monetary Fund
What terms describe a group of nations within a geographical region that have agreed to remove trade barriers with one another?
Trading bloc or economic community
The _______ is a trading bloc consisting of the US, Canada, and Mexico.
North American Free Trade Agreement
The _____ consists of 27 trading partners in Europe.
The ______ is a group of 21 Pacific Rim countries whose purpose is to improve economic and political ties.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
The ______ is a trading bloc consisting of 11 countries in Asia.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The ____ is the largest trade bloc in Latin America.
The ______ is tended to reduce tariffs and other barriers to free trade. It includes US, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
Central America Free Trade Agreement
____ is the shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to a group of people.
A ____ in which shared meanings are primarily derived from written and spoken words.
Low context culture
A ______ in which people rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when communicating with others.
What are the nine cultural dimensions?
Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, institutional collectivism, in group collectivism, gender equalitarianism, assertiveness, future orientation, performance orientation, and humane orientation