Orgo Ch 1 Ppts (Pt. 3)

  1. Dipole moments
    -What can you do with them?
    add them up and they form a direction toward the more electronegative
  2. What can the poles do?
    negative pole of one may react with the positive pole of anotehr
  3. In chemistry, what cannot you do?
    break single bonds
  4. What do arrows indicate?
    the flow of two electrons
  5. Sigma bonds are __
    single bonds
  6. Pi bonds are __
    sigma bond and another bond
  7. Where can't you push electrons to?
    a saturated area
  8. In contrast to single bonds, what are double bonds?
    shorter and stronger than single bonds
  9. Where should you put the negative charge?
    on the most electronegative atom
  10. delocalization
    • spreading out the charge--> stabilized
    • lower in energy, much more readily accessed
  11. Explain formal charges in terms of neutral molecules.
    if neutral, formal charges add up to zero
  12. For period 2 elements, what is the deal with charges?
    no double charges exist
  13. Double charge rule
    no double charges directly next to each other= too much repulsion
  14. Explain major and minor contributors.
    In resonance, they both exist. The major will be the one that most likely occurs in nature
  15. When both resonance forms obey the octet rule, the major contributor is __
    the one with the negative charge on the most electronegative atom
  16. Condensed structural formulas
    • are written without showing all the individual bonds
    • atoms bonded to the central atom are listed after hte central atom
    • if there are two or more identical groups, parentheses and a subscript may be used to represent them
  17. Line angles are also called __
    zig-zag structures
  18. At the end of every line and at the intersection of any lines in line-angle structures, there is __.
    a carbon atom with four bonds. Hydrogen atoms are mentally supplied to fill the valency to four
  19. In line angle drawings, what must be shown.
    atoms other than carbon and double and triple bonds
  20. Definitions of acids and bases
    • arrhenius: 
    • - acid: forms H30+ in water
    • - base: forms OH- in water

    • Bronsted-Lowry: 
    • - acid: donates an H+
    • - base: accepts an H+

    • Lewis:
    • - acid: accepts an electron pair to form a new bond
    • - base: donates an electron pair to form a new bond
  21. Bronsted-Lowry acids are any species that __
    donate a proton
  22. Bronsted-Lowry bases are any species that __
    accept a proton
  23. conjugate acids and bases
    • conjugate acid: when a base accepts a proton, it becomes an acid capable of returning that proton
    • conjugate base: when an acid donates its proton, it becomes capable of accepting that proton back
  24. Effect of electronegativity on pKa
    As the bond to H becomes more polarized, what?
    H becomes more positive and the bond is easier to break
  25. Effect of size on pKa
    As size increases, what?
    • the H is more loosely held and the bond is easier to break
    • a larger size also stabilizes an anion
  26. Lewis bases are
    species with available electrons that can be donated to form a new bond
  27. Lewis acids are
    species that can accept these electrons to form new bonds
  28. Since a Lewis acid accepts electrons, it is called an __
  29. Nucleophile
    donates electrons to a nucleus with an empty orbital (Lewis base)
  30. Electrophile
    accepts a pair of electrons (same as Lewis acid)
  31. When forming a bond, __ attacks the __, so the arrow goes from __ to __.
    • nucleophile
    • electrophile
    • -
    • +
  32. When breaking a bond, the more __ receives the electrons.
    electronegative atom
Card Set
Orgo Ch 1 Ppts (Pt. 3)