1. Define 'stress'. And what are the two types?
    • A state of psychological and physiological arousal in response to changes in internal and external environment.
    • Eustress: Stress that is positive in nature
    • Distress: Stress that is negative in nature
  2. What is the fight or flight response?
    • The automatic arousal of the body that is activated by the SNS when confronted with a threat allowing them to flee (flight) or confront it (fight). 
    • Sympathetic NS sends message to adrenal medulla which releases adrenaline and noradrenaline.
  3. Describe the HPA axis
    Hypothalamus is activated in response to a stressor, which in stimulates the Pituitary gland to activate the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol
  4. Describe Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping
    • Emphasised the importance of cognitive processes when confronted with a stressor
    • The way the stressor was perceived was important. Showed that stress is subjective
    • Focused on the relationship between the individual and the environment when assessing whether a stressor caused harm, threat and challenging.
  5. Describe primary appraisal
    • When confronted with a stressful situation judgement is made
    • 1.Has no significance.
    • 2.Is benign. Also known as a positive or
    • desirable encounter
    • 3. Is stressful: if stressful then evaluating whether it has caused Harm, is threatening or challenging.
  6. Describe what happens during secondary appraisal
    • The stage where the individual looks at what internal and external resources are available to them for coping with the stress
    • Internal resources: will power, motivation
    • External resources: social support, professional help
  7. What is coping and the different types of coping?
    • Coping: Changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to attempt to manage stressors
    • Problem focused coping: fixes the source of the stress
    • Emotion focused coping: strategies that deal with emotional responses to stress (distractions, ignoring it,
  8. What are strengths of the transactional model?
    • It used human subjects
    • it took into account different mental processes and emotions of individuals (acknowledges individual perception)
    • Focused on how people cope with stress
  9. What are limitations or the transactional model?
    • Lack of emphasis on physiological elements of stress
    • It does not include social, cultural and environmental factors when looking at how individuals perceive stress
  10. What are social, cultural and environmental factors of stress
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  11. What is allostasis? Name a difference between homeostasis and allostasis
    • Achieves physiological and/or psychological stability through behavioural or physiological change and adapting to the stressors
    • Allostasis is a much more dynamic and adaptive process compared to homeostasis
  12. What is 'allostatic load'?
    • The cumulative cost to the body due to allostatic response
    • The frequent occurrence of stress responses (F-F HPA axis) can cause long term damage to the body due to the constant exposure to stress hormones.
  13. What is 'Biofeedback'? Provide 3 examples
    • A technique that enables an individual to receive information about their physiological responses to stress using sensitive instruments.
    • In therapy, the patient is taught how to change these levels by altering their thoughts, feelings and behaviour
    • GSR, ECG, EMG
  14. What is meditation? Relaxation?
    • Meditation: An actively occurring ASC that uses mental exercises to become highly focused on one single thought at the exclusion of others. 
    • Relaxation: any activity that brings about a state of reduced psychological and/or physiological tension.
    • Both reduce physiological arousal
  15. Describe how physical exercises reduces stress
    • Physical exertion to improve one's health
    • Releases endorphins which is a natural pain relief
    • Reduces muscle tension
    • Uses up excess energy from stress hormones
    • Enhances physical health
    • Distracts the person by focusing on movement not stressor
  16. How is social support a strategy for coping with stress?
    • Refers to the network of family, friends, neighbours and general community that are available to assist us during times of need.
    • Can assist through: Tangible assistance eg. food, money
    • Emotional support- reassurance 
    • Information support- Advice
    • Appraisal support- helps the individual understand the stressor and the resources available
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