What is a schema?
a conceptual framework. A belief about family, how drive a car etc... Schema changes as you have new experiences.
What does it mean to dialogue?
Talk to other people/learn from other people
What is an epiphany?
A-ha moment, lights come on moment
The science of behavior and mental processes
Distinguish b/w behavior and mental processes
- behavior is all the overt actions that we do
- Mental processes are the thinking part (black box psychology- can't see what is going on in mind.
What are the five major areas of psychological study?
- mental processes
- social relationships
- emotional responses
- physiological reactions
What is nativism?
some things built into us from the beginning, certain things are just there. Instincts just built in. Humans don't have a lot of instincts
What is philosophical empiricism?
Tabla Rasa (soft clay-blank slate- take a stylus write in clay) we learn from experience - teaches us what to do.
breath or to breath more literally from greek means mind or soul
means science or study of
Psychology grew out of what to 'ologys'?
- Philosophy (socrates and aristotle)
germany, founded the first psychology laboratory. Did the first real research
Born in NY. self taught in psychology, gave first lectures in psychology at Harvard University. Authored the first psychology text "the principles of psychology
- Austrian physician who developed psychoanalysis = method which therapist works with unconscious conflicts.
- Studied hysteria in women
- All behavior motivated by what happened in past
the minds structures
The minds functions
mesh the two (structuralism and functionalism) together
- You can't remember on a test what you studied
- You remember a saying and can't remember who said it
Something you seem to see but it isn't really the case
studies something you can't see or quantify
- observable actions - quantifying behavior
- behavior is what people really believe and how act. Mouths lie behavior never lies! Actions speak louder than words
- Free will and human goodness (inner directedness)
- Study of why we want to be good and give goodness
- Studying internal mental events; thinking again
- You have to study thought; what proceeds behavior is thought.
- cultural factors influence behavior and thinking.
- psychology of the people - what culture you grew up in creates your psychology
social factors influence behavior and thinking. How people function in certain groups.
natural selection of behavioral and physical characteristics
study of positive, creative, fulfilling aspects of humans
take what works for me and put it in "my bag". you pick and choose the things you like.
What are psychology's current schools of psychological thought?
- cultural psychology
- social psychology
- positive psychology
Credentials of psychological science?
- social worker
- clinical psychologist
- counseling psychologist
zero training, some have bachelors, masters, PHD's. Some people are good counselors and yet have no training
M.S.W. or D.S.W (masters or doctorate of social work) people that work with normal problems and normal people
PHD - can prescribe some medications. Will give therapy too
PHD can prescribe some meds will also give therapy
M.D. (medical doctor) not as likely to give therapy but will write you prescriptions (cocktails of prescriptions)
Three basic research strategies used in psychology
- correlational studies
- descriptive techniques
Empiricism, what is it
the belief that accuratge knowledge of the world requires observation of the world
the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions. one track minded. however you see life is right. close minded
put the following in order:
- a law
- the truth
what know about "theory"
as we live life most of us are making up our own theories about things that have kicked around in our minds a while
formalize theory then plug into research. if research says yes: 50%=chance, 67%=2 out of three times, 75%=3 out of 4 times; if says no then change hypothesis or forget it.
A law is?
the higher the % of times above 50% then its a law. ie: psychology law - frustration causes anger
the truth is
when it happens all of the time
Scientific method (he will ask generally about not steps or specifics)
scientists use this method to indentify cause and effect relationships
- state question
- perform background research
- formulate a hypothesis
- performing an experiment
- analyze the data and infer conclusion
- publish the results
senses to study various types of human phenomenon - usually visual and verbal used most.
Casual observations are?
not useful and notoriously unstable
a set of rules and techniques for observation that allow observers to avoid the mistakes that simple observations can produce. This is the way you research
a procedure in which a researcher systematically manipulates and observes elements of a situation in order to test a hypothesis and make a cause-and-effect statement or conclusion
anything in which the amount varies or changes
What is a measure?
- in an example the measure is who doesn't stop (like for good samaritan experiment) and why. Or compare IQ scores - IQ is the measure
- What you use to get the data is the measure
Validity refers to
the accuracy of a measurement; measures what it claims to measure
reliability refers to
the consistency of a measurement - gives the same results each time
pick the group to do the experiment with
a sample is
give everyone the same chance (pick out of a hat) to be picked. Random sampling