Psychology 2013 Fall

  1. What is a schema?
    a conceptual framework.  A belief about family, how drive a car etc... Schema changes as you have new experiences.
  2. What does it mean to dialogue?
    Talk to other people/learn from other people
  3. What  is an epiphany?
    A-ha moment, lights come on moment
  4. Define Psychology
    The science of behavior and mental processes
  5. Distinguish b/w behavior and mental processes
    • behavior is all the overt actions that we do
    • Mental processes are the thinking part (black box psychology- can't see what is going on in mind.
  6. What are the five major areas of psychological study?
    • Behavior
    • mental processes
    • social relationships
    • emotional responses
    • physiological reactions
  7. What is nativism?
    some things built into us from the beginning, certain things are just there. Instincts just built in.  Humans don't have a lot of instincts
  8. What is philosophical empiricism?
    Tabla Rasa (soft clay-blank slate- take a stylus write in clay) we learn from experience - teaches us what to do.
  9. Psyche means
    breath or to breath more literally from greek means mind or soul
  10. Logos is
    means science or study of
  11. Psychology grew out of what to 'ologys'?
    • Philosophy (socrates and aristotle)
    • Physiology
  12. Wilhelm Wundt
    germany, founded the first psychology laboratory. Did the first real research
  13. William James
    Born in NY. self taught in psychology, gave first lectures in psychology at Harvard University.  Authored the first psychology text "the principles of psychology
  14. Sigmund Freud
    • Austrian physician who developed psychoanalysis = method which therapist works with unconscious conflicts.
    • Studied hysteria in women
    • All behavior motivated by what happened in past
  15. Structuralism
    the minds structures
  16. Functionalism
    The minds functions
  17. Gestalt psychologists
    mesh the two (structuralism and functionalism) together
  18. Mindbug example
    • You can't remember on a test what you studied
    • You remember a saying and can't remember who said it
  19. Illusion examples
    Something you seem to see but it isn't really the case
  20. Psychodynamic
    studies something you can't see or quantify
  21. Behaviorism
    • observable actions - quantifying behavior
    • behavior is what people really believe and how act. Mouths lie behavior never lies! Actions speak louder than words
  22. Humanism
    • Free will and human goodness (inner directedness)
    • Study of why we want to be good and give goodness
  23. Cognitive
    • Studying internal mental events; thinking again
    • You have to study thought; what proceeds behavior is thought.
  24. cultural psychology
    • cultural factors influence behavior and thinking.
    • psychology of the people - what culture you grew up in creates your psychology
  25. social psychology
    social factors influence behavior and thinking.  How people function in certain groups.
  26. evolutionary
    natural selection of behavioral and physical characteristics
  27. positive psychology
    study of positive, creative, fulfilling aspects of humans
  28. eclecticism
    take what works for me and put it in "my bag".  you pick and choose the things you like.
  29. What are psychology's current schools of psychological thought?
    • psychodynamic
    • behaviorism
    • humanism
    • cognitive
    • cultural psychology
    • social psychology
    • evolutionary
    • positive psychology
    • eclecticism
  30. Credentials of psychological science?
    • Counselor
    • social worker
    • clinical psychologist
    • counseling psychologist
    • psychiatrist
  31. Counselor is
    zero training, some have bachelors, masters, PHD's.  Some people are good counselors and yet have no training
  32. Social worker
    M.S.W. or D.S.W (masters or doctorate of social work) people that work with normal problems and normal people
  33. clinical psychologist
    PHD - can prescribe some medications. Will give therapy too
  34. Counseling psychologist
    PHD can prescribe some meds will also give therapy
  35. Psychiatrist
    M.D. (medical doctor) not as likely to give therapy but will write you prescriptions (cocktails of prescriptions)
  36. Three basic research strategies used in psychology
    • Experiment
    • correlational studies
    • descriptive techniques
  37. Empiricism, what is it
    the belief that accuratge knowledge of the world requires observation of the world
  38. Dogmatism is
    the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions. one track minded. however you see life is right. close minded
  39. put the following in order:
    a law
    the truth
    • theory
    • hypothesis
    • a law
    • the truth
  40. what know about "theory"
    as we live life most of us are making up our own theories about things that have kicked around in our minds a while
  41. hypothesis define
    formalize theory then plug into research. if research says yes: 50%=chance, 67%=2 out of three times, 75%=3 out of 4 times; if says no then change hypothesis or forget it.
  42. A law is?
    the higher the % of times above 50% then its a law. ie: psychology law - frustration causes anger
  43. the truth is
    when it happens all of the time
  44. Scientific method (he will ask generally about not steps or specifics)
    scientists use this method to indentify cause and effect relationships

    • state question
    • perform background research
    • formulate a hypothesis
    • performing an experiment
    • analyze the data and infer conclusion
    • publish the results
  45. Observation uses?
    senses to study various types of human phenomenon - usually visual and verbal used most.
  46. Casual observations are?
    not useful and notoriously unstable
  47. Method is
    a set of rules and techniques for observation that allow observers to avoid the mistakes that simple observations can produce. This is the way you research
  48. Experiment is
    a procedure in which a researcher systematically manipulates and observes elements of a situation in order to test a hypothesis and make a cause-and-effect statement or conclusion
  49. Variable
    anything in which the amount varies or changes
  50. What is a measure?
    • in an example the measure is who doesn't stop (like for good samaritan experiment) and why. Or compare IQ scores - IQ is the measure
    • What you use to get the data is the measure
  51. Validity refers to
    the accuracy of a measurement; measures what it claims to measure
  52. reliability refers to
    the consistency of a measurement - gives the same results each time
  53. Population is
    pick the group to do the experiment with
  54. a sample is
    give everyone the same chance (pick out of a hat) to be picked. Random sampling
Card Set
Psychology 2013 Fall
Unit 1