Research Methods Vocab

  1. Research design
    The experimenters plan for selecting participants, assigning participants to groups, controlling for extraneous variables, and gathering data.
  2. At risk participants
    Any participants in a research study who may come under some sort of emotional or physical danger as a result of their participation in the study. The degree of risk may vary from severe to minimal or not at all.
  3. Debriefing
    Informing the participant (at the study's conclusion) of the true purpose and nature of the research study
  4. IRB
    Institutional Review Board: A college/university committee that reviews ALL research proposals that faculty/students plan on conducting. The review's purpose is to determine whether the proposed study is ethical.
  5. Plagiarism
    Using other people's ideas, words, or work without giving them the proper credit.
  6. Ethnographic Inquiry
    Research that seeks to learn about some aspect of a given culture by investigating how members of that culture perceive it.
  7. Narrative Study
    The use of stories (biographies, oral histories) as a source of data with regard to understanding a given phenomenon.
  8. Historiography
    The collection, analysis, and interpretation of data for the purpose of understanding past events.
  9. Grounded Theory
    An approach to qualitative research that develops theories of human action and though based on data collected in the real world. Its primary sources of data collection involve observation and interviews. Once data are collected, grounded theorists use open, axial, and selective coding to organize and interpret collected data.
  10. Time/Situation Sampling
    The processes of observing either behavior as it occurs at different time periods or observing the same behavior in different situations.
  11. Interobserver Reliability
    The extent to which different observers agree with each other with regard to the occurrence of a specific behavior or event.
  12. Ex Post Facto Study
    A study in which a researcher investigates behavior and events AFTER they have occurred. In this type of study, the variables of interest either are not manipulated or cannot be manipulated.
  13. Validity
    The extent to which a study actually measures what it intends to measure. Generally, researchers are concerned about three types of validity: content, concurrent, and criterion.
  14. Reliability
    The extent to which a study is consistent across its measurement from one occasion to the next. Reliability is measured by using the Test-Retest Technique, or the Split-Half Technique.
  15. Random Sampling
    A form of sampling a population in which all members of that population have an equal chance of participating in the study. Random sampling can occur with and without replacement. Stratified random sampling occurs when participants are selected from particular subpopulations or (or strata) of the target population.
  16. Control
    The extent to which a researcher can manipulate the independent variable and eliminate or hold steady unwanted, confounding, or nuisance variables.
  17. Extraneous Variables
    Any variables in a study that might influence the measurement of the dependent variable(s). If left uncontrolled, EVs seriously interfere with the ability of the experimenter to conduct a valid study.
  18. Falsifiability
    The ability to show that a hypothesis is false - that is, the possibility that any given hypothesis, when tested, could be false. Falsifiability is one of the cornerstones of rigorous experimentation.
  19. Operational Definition
    Defining the IV, DV, and EVs according to the operations necessary to produce or measure them.
  20. Elimination
    Controlling extraneous variables by removing them from the experimental setting.
  21. Constancy
    A control procedure in which all participants experience the same value or level of the IV.
  22. Balancing
    A control procedure in which all groups in an experiment are equally exposed to the same levels of extraneous variables.
  23. Counterbalancing
    A procedure for controlling sequence or order effects. Counterbalancing comes in two forms: within-subject and within-group counterbalancing.
  24. Sequence (Order) Effects
    An effect that occurs when more than one treatment is used in an experiment. The order in which participants experience a particular treatment may determine how those participants behave.
  25. Carryover Effects
    A condition that results when the effects of one treatment affect how participants respond to a subsequent treatment.
  26. Demand Characteristics
    Features of the experimental setting that inadvertently cause participants to respond in particular ways.
  27. Double-Blind
    An experiment in which neither participants nor the experimenter knows which treatment participants are receiving. Instead, a third party has this knowledge.
  28. Etic and Emic
    These terms concern the nature of findings between and among different cultures. An etic is a finding that generalizes across cultures; an emic is a finding that is limited to a specific culture.
  29. Cultural Response Set
    The tendency for individuals of a specific culture to behave in certain ways.
  30. Internal Validity
    A type of evaluation of your experiment; it asks the question of whether you IV is the only possible explanation of the results shown for your DV. Threats to internal validity include testing, maturation, instrumentation, statistical regression, selection, mortality, interaction selectivity, and diffusion of treatment.
  31. Practice Effect
    Having previous or repeated experience with the DV may cause participants to score differently on subsequent measures of the DV.
  32. Statistical Regression
    Individuals with high or low scores on a DV often respond with a score closer to the mean when measured again on that same DV.
  33. External Validity
    Generalization or the extent to which the results of an experiment apply to the larger population from which the sample used in that experiment was drawn.
  34. Replication
    Doing an experiment over again either by repeating it exactly as it was conducted the first time or by changing aspects of the setting, participants, or conditions.
  35. Principle of Parsimony
    Using the simplest means possible to explain the results of an experiment, or more, generally in psychology, the causes of behavior.
  36. Random Assignment
    A method for assigning participants to groups so that each member of the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups used in an experiment.
  37. Repeated Measures
    Measuring or testing participants more than once with regard to the DV.
  38. Between-Groups Variability
    Variability in DV scores that is due solely to the effects of the IV.
  39. Error Variability
    Variability in DV scores that is due to factors other than the IV.
  40. One-Way ANOVA
    A statistical test used to analyze data from an experimental design with one independent variable that has three or more groups (levels).
  41. Completely Random ANOVA
    A one-way ANOVA that involves independent groups of participants.
  42. Repeated Measures ANOVA
    A one-way ANOVA that involves correlated groups of participants.
  43. Within-Groups Variability
    Error variability or the variability in DV scores that is due to factors other than the IV - individual differences, measurement error, and extraneous variation.
  44. Factorial Design
    An experimental design with more than one IV. Each IV generally has at least two levels.
  45. Main Effect
    The sole effect of more than one IV on the DV in a factorial design.
  46. Interaction
    The combined effect of more than one IV on the DV in a factorial design.
  47. Mixed Assignment
    A factorial design in which the group receiving one treatment is independent and the group receiving the other treatment are correlated.
  48. A-B-A-B Design
    A single-case design constituting of a baseline, treatment, posttest, return to baseline, repeated treatment, and second posttest. This design gives the best change of isolating causation.
  49. Quasi-Experimental Design
    A research design used when you cannot randomly assign your experimental participants to the groups but do manipulate an IV and measure a DV.
  50. Interrupted Time Series Design
    A quasi-experimental design involving one group of participants that receive repeated pretreatment measures, a treatment, and repeated posttreatment measures.
Card Set
Research Methods Vocab
Research methods vocab