Chapter Three history of sport

  1. America's Cup
    Award named for John Cox Stevens' yacht that was first awarded to the New York Yacht Club and eventually it would be the prize awarded to the winner of an international competition between American and foreign competitors.
  2. Elysian Fields
    Portion of John Cox Stevens' property in Hoboken, New Jersey, that was donated for use as cricket fields and the New York Yacht Club.
  3. John Cox Stevens
    Heir to a steamboat fortune, Stevens used his wealth to stage and promote sporting events (particularly races) involving horses, yachts, and people.
  4. Middle Class Victorianism
    Named for the longest-serving monarch in British history (Victoria) it was a time period in which there was a belief that there was commonality between the middle class of the western industrialized world.  The common themes included evangelical Protestantism, self-restraint, and hard work.
  5. Muscular Christianity
    Second half of the 19th Century movement that stressed a balance of physical and spiritual exercise.  Writer Thomas Wentworth Higgenson was a leading proponent of the movement.
  6. Oppositional or Counterculture
    Made up mainly of working-class men from the new industrial economy of the 19th century who were no longer taking pride in their work. Immigrants also made up a large part of this group along with members of the upper class.  They were rebelling against the restraint of the Victorian middle class in many ways including competitive sports.
  7. Pedestrianism
    A phenomenon of human foot-racing that was popular throughout America before and after the Civil War.
  8. Positive Sports Ideology
    The idea that sports and athletics is a positive alternative to the more negative aspects of city life.
  9. Race of the Century
    Considered by many the first major sporting event that received national attention and promotion in newspapers -- it pitted a northern horse Eclipse vs. southern horse Sir Henry in a sectional battle at Union race track on Long Island.
  10. Rational Recreation
    Recreation that was deemed appropriate by the Victorian middle class including reading newspapers, books, and playing musical instruments.  Some sports were allowed but always under the umbrella of non-competitiveness.
  11. Second Great Awakening
    Religious revival movement of the 18th Century that was more widespread and longer-lasting than the movement of the previous century.
  12. Separate Spheres
    As part of the Victorian middle class, there was a separation of sexes.  The public sphere (business, politics) was the domain of men and the private sphere (the home, family) was the domain of women. Rarely did the two mix.
  13. Sporting Fraternities
    Subcultures created by the counterculture for those who were interested in specific sports. It was also a place where men can find a surrogate brotherhood.
  14. Sporting Spectacles
    Games set up by fraternities to showcase their sports and their best competitors. Victorians were against them because of the competitiveness and the gambling and money paid to the participants went against their basic beliefs.
  15. Triple Crown
    Trio of stakes races that were developed in the 1870s (Belmont Stakes, Preakness and the Kentucky Derby).
  16. Volunteer Fire Departments
    A prime place for the Victorian counterculture to meet as every town had a volunteer fire department. It was a place that allowed working-class men to experience excitement and camaraderie.
  17. Walking City
    First of three stages of development of urban areas in which the edge of town was no more than two miles from the center of the town.
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Chapter Three history of sport
History of sport chapter three