Chapter One- History of Sport

  1. Backcountry
    Considered the frontier to the west of the original colonies settled primarily by Scots-Irish from the borderlands of Britain. It was the last area of North American colonization
  2. Blue Laws
    Pennsylvania laws that determined what activities were allowed on the Sabbath and what were not. The term "blue" referred to what citizens were supposed to look and act like on the Sabbath
  3. Book of Sports
    King James' 1618 declaration of what sports were and were not allowed to be played on the Sabbath.  The declaration came in response to the growing influence of the Puritans.
  4. Festive Culture
    Games played in conjunction with the gathering of large groups of people in British society celebrating religious or pagan holidays or simply celebrating life.
  5. Foolstide
    Derisive term used for Christmas by the Puritans
  6. Football
    The most popular of the violent folk games-- especially among the lower class
  7. Ganderpulling
    A popular blood sport in the Southern colonies usually staged on the Monday following Easter in which a goose was hung by its feet from a rope tied between two trees.  The bird's neck was greased and the participants attempted to pull its head off from horseback
  8. Joust and Tilt Yard
    The joust was a popular competition among the royals and the tilt-yard was where the joust took place --  a field divided by a fence that helped prevent the participants from crashing into one another.
  9. Kolven
    A game introduced to the New York colony by the Dutch.  It most closely resembles the modern game of golf.
  10. Landed Gentry
    A relatively small group of landowners in Virginia who owned most of the land and became the cultural elite of the colony.
  11. Lawful Recreation or Sport
    Activities allowed by Puritan society which were designed to refresh the mind and body of the participant while being completely disassociated by Britain's Festive Culture
  12. May Day
    Annual rite of spring for British society and rite of passage for British youth. The most popular holiday of the British Festive Culture
  13. Middle Colonies
    The colonies of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.  The area was settled for varying reasons.
  14. Needful Recreation
    Activities deemed to be appropriate in Pennsylvania. Similar to Puritan Lawful sport, needful recreation was allowed if it benefited the individual through exercise or providing food.
  15. Oliver Cromwell
    Leader of the Parliamentary forces during the British Civil War.  Was the titular ruler of Great Britain after the Civil War when there was no monarch
  16. Primogeniture
    British cultural tradition of the first-born son inheriting the family fortune
  17. Quarter Horses
    A new breed of horse in the colonies that was much smaller than the British thoroughbreds with larger hindquarters bred to race shorter distances of a quarter mile or less.
  18. Rough and Tumble
    Popular vioent sport with no rules in the Backcountry usually contested when there was a real or perceived slight to one's manhood.  The ultimate goal of the sport was to gouge out the eyes of your opponent
  19. Sabbatarian Laws
    Laws passed in the colonies to restrict recreation on the Sabbath
  20. Shrovetide
    The two days before Ash Wednesday that marks the end of Carnival and the beginning of Lent
  21. Tennis
    Also a popular royal sport imported to Britain from France during the Middle Ages
Card Set
Chapter One- History of Sport
Chapter one