1. Occurs when large areas move upward.
    -happens in the himalayas
    -generally occurs at slow rates (a few mm/year)
    -over long periods of time it is possible to move rocks over a mile verically
  2. Occurs when an area drops
    -very common with compaction of sediments
    -can also occur during tectonic events
  3. generic term that geolgist use to indicate events that cause uplift and deformation
    Mountain building
  4. what causes uplift?
    • thrust faults that stack rocks on top of each other
    • piles of volcanic rock extruded onto an area
    • igneous activity injects magam and expands rocks upward
    • increased thermal activity
    • folding or buckling of rock
  5. uplifts occur at convergent plate boundries
  6. uplift generally occurs with
    moutiain buliding & isostaic adjustments
  7. isostatic adjustments can be caused by
    • erosion
    • sediment build up
    • glaciation
  8. reigonal mountains result from temporally extended and l
    temporally extended and laterally extensie plate interactions
  9. reional mountains are created as
    • belts that trend parallel to plate boudaries
    • created by large upward movements of mantle ( bows the crust upward)
  10. reigonal mountains are associated with
    increases in crustal thicknesses
  11. local mountains are examples of
    individual uplift
  12. regional mountains are
    large areas of many different types of uplift
  13. regional mountains may contain many different examples of local mountains
  14. local mountains can be cause by volcanism. faulting folding and erosion.
  15. Local mountains may occur in areas where regional mountains are absents
  16. mountain types
    • erosional mountains (texas)
    • volcanic mountains (pacific nw)
    • fault-block mountains (nevada)
    • fold and thrust moutains (Georgia )
    • complex moutians (georgia)
  17. how do earthquakes occur?
    energy stored in rocks is released along the faults
  18. what are seismic waves?
    produced by the earth -a rapid release of energy
  19. energy realsed durring an earthquake radiates from
    the hypocenter
  20. most earthquakes occur
    along the fault zones
  21. earthquakes can be caused by
    • volcanic eruptions
    • meteorite impacts
    • nuclear wepons
    • human induced causes
  22. after an earthquake some rocks return
    elastically to the original position after an earthquake
  23. after large eathquakes, an ________ or ________ can occur
    foreshocks and aftershocks
  24. 95% of the energy released by eathquakes originates in
    narrow linear zones
  25. major earthquake zones
    • -circum pacific belt
    • -mediterranean - himalayan complex
    • -oceanic ridge system
  26. earthquake classification?
    • shallow (0-70 km)
    • intermediate (70-300 km)
    • oceanic ridge (>300km)
  27. Earthquakes patterns

    ocean ridge system =
    shallow focus only
  28. Earthquake patterns

    Subduction zones =
    shallow to deep focus earthquakes
  29. deep focus eathquakes occur at
    subduction zone
  30. the study of eathquake waves
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