Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- aims to influence thought and cognition (Beck, 1977).
- This relies on not only the clients behavioral problems that could have arrised from conditioning; but also there negative schemas, and distorted perceptions of the world around them.
- These negative schemas may be causing distress in the life of the patient. When these expectations are not met it will often result in maladaptive behaviors; the goal is to change the schemas that are causing the stress in a persons life and hopefully replace them with more realistic ones.
- it will hopefully cause a remission of the patients symptoms.
- CBT is considered particularly effective in the treatment of depression and has even been used lately in group settings.
- CBT has been found to be an effective treatments for many patients even those who do not have diseases and disorders typically thought of as psychiatric ones.
Humanistic therapy (Rogers)
Humanistic therapy aims to achieve self-actualization (Carl Rogers, 1961). Therapist will focus on the patient themselves as opposed to the problem which the patient is afflicted with. The overall goal of this therapy is that by treating the patient as "human" instead of client will help get to the source of the problem and hopefully resolve the problem in in effective manner. Humanistic therapy can be used on people of all ages; however it is very popular among children in its variant known as "play therapy". Children are often sent to therapy due to outburst that they have in a school or home setting, the theory is that by treating the child in a setting that is similar to the area that they are having their disruptive behavior, the child will be more likely to learn from the therapy and have an effective outcome. In play therapy the clinician will "play" with their client usually with toys, or a tea party. Playing is the typical behavior of a child and therefore playing with the therapist will come as a natural response to the child. In playing together the clinician will ask the patient questions but due to the setting; the questions no longer seem intrusive and therapeutic more like a normal conversation. This should help the patient realizes issues they have and confess them to the therapist with less difficulty than they may experience in a traditional counselling setting
Behavioral therapy (Wolpe)
- Behavior therapy relies on the principles of behaviorism, such as involving classical and operant conditioning. James Watson, and B.F. Skinner.
- Behaviorism states that all behaviors humans do is because of a stimulus and reinforcement. While this reinforcement is normally for good behavior, it can also occur for maladaptive behavior.
- In this therapeutic view, the patients maladaptive behavior has been reinforced which will cause the maladaptive behavior to be repeated. The goal of the therapy is to reunforce less maladaptive behaviors so that with time these adaptive behaviors will become the primary ones in the patient.
- Psychoanalytic theory is heavily based on Freudian ideas which were introduced by the famous psychologist Sigmund Freud.
- These ideas often represented repressed emotions and memories from a patients childhood. According to psychoanalytic theory these repressions cause the disturbances that we experience in our daily lives and by finding the source of these disturbances, we should be able to eliminate the disturbance itself. This is accomplished by a variety of methods, with some popular ones being free association, hypnosis, and insight. The goal of these methods is to induce a catharsis or emotional release in the patient which should indicate that the source of the problem has been tapped and it can then be helped. Freud's psychosexual stages also played a key role in this form of therapy; as he would often believe that problems the patient was experiencing were due to them becoming stuck or "fixated" in a particular stage. Dreams also played a major role in this form of therapy as Freud viewed dreams as a way to gain insight into the unconscious mind. Patients were often asked to keep dream journals and to record their dreams to bring in for discussion during the next therapy session. There are many potential problems associated with this style of therapy, including resistance to the repressed memory or feeling, and negative transference onto the therapist. Psychoanalysis was carried on by many after Freud including his daughter Ana Freud and Jacques Lacan. These and many others have went on to elaborate on Freud's original theory and to add their own take on defense mechanisms or dream analysis.While psychoanalysis has fallen out of favor to more modern forms of therapy it is still used by some clinical psychologists to varying degrees.