SOCIO221 CH1 - Research Methods/Techniques

  1. Research refers to...
    the systematic examination of empirical data
  2. An example of research is...
    • one of the five basic methods and four techniques used as a process to gather evidence
    • such as, empirical evidence versus anecdotal evidence
  3. Science refers to...
    a method (such as, a process) of obtaining objective and systematic knowledge through observation
  4. An example of science is...
    that one can base actions on scientific research or common sense based on experience
  5. What are the 5 basic research methods?
    • Survey
    • Observation (a.k.a. Direct Observation)
    • Experiment
    • Case Study (a.k.a. Archival Research)
    • Secondary Data Analysis
  6. What are the two types of surveys?
    • Total Population Survey
    • Sample Survey
  7. Survey: Total Population Survey
    All research subjects get the research instrument
  8. Survey: Sample Survey
    Only a subset gets the research instrument
  9. What are the two types of observation?
    • Participant Observation
    • Unobtrusive Measures
  10. Observation: Participant Observation
    Researcher will participate in the social setting of the research
  11. Observation: Unobtrusive Measures
    Researcher will intrude as little as possible in the social setting of the research
  12. What are the two types of experiements?
    • Field Experiment
    • Controlled Experiment
  13. Experiment: Field Experiment
    Takes place in the natural setting of the research subjects
  14. Experiement: Controlled Experiement
    Takes place in a laboratory
  15. Case Study
    • a.k.a. Archival Research
    • Researcher looks at one person, one group, or one organization in-depth
  16. Secondary Data Analysis
    Researcher reanalyzes data collected by another researcher and writes a research report
  17. What are the four basic research techniques?
    • Questionnaire
    • Interview
    • Observation
    • Documents
  18. Basic Research Techniques
    What are the two types of questionnaires?
    • Open Questions
    • Closed Questions
  19. Basic Research Techniques
    Questionnaire: Open Question
    No response categories provided
  20. Basic Research Techniques
    Questionnaire: Closed Question
    Response categories provided
  21. Basic Research Techniques
    What are the two types of interviews?
    • Structured Interview
    • Unstructured Interview
  22. Basic Research Techniques
    Interview: Structured Interview
    Relative extensive list of questions prepared for the interview
  23. Basic Research Techniques
    Interview: Unstructured Interview
    No extensive list of questions prepared for the interview
  24. Basic Research Techniques
    What are several ways to document observations?
    • Field Notes
    • Cassette tapes
    • Video tapes
  25. Basic Research Techniques
    • Autobiographies and biographies
    • Government reports, scholarly books, and scholarly articles
  26. Hypothesis refers to...
    • a statement about a relationship between two or more variables
    • a tentative statement that can be tested regarding relationships between two or more factors
  27. Example of a hypothesises...
    • drunk driving causes car accidents
    • driving under the influence of marijuana causes car accidents
  28. Variable refers to...
    characteristics of a person or group that can vary from one case to another
  29. Examples of variables are...
    race, sex, social class, religion, age
  30. What are the two types of variables?
    • Dependent variable
    • Independent variable
  31. Dependent Variable
    a variable which the researcher is trying to explain the hypothesis
  32. Independent Variable
    a variable which causes a change in another variable
  33. Empirical study refers to...
    a research study which has been conducted in a careful and systematic manner and uses methodology that can be replicated by another researcher
  34. An example of an empirical study...
    an empirical study conducted by Dr. Cromartie at USF for a doctoral dissertation
  35. Empirical data refers to...
    data which has been collected through an empirical study
  36. An example of empirical data is...
    empirical data that is collected by Dr. Cromartie for a doctoral dissertation
Card Set
SOCIO221 CH1 - Research Methods/Techniques
SOCIO221 CH1 - Research Methods/Techniques