Developmental Explanations of Behavior, Cognitions, and Emotions

  1. žProcess of being in concert with
    the world
    • -Nature
    • -Social sphere
    • -Work sphere
    • -Leisure sphere
  2. What
    is normal?
    • ž“Psychically normal persons are
    • those who are in harmony with themselves and with their environment.  They conform with the cultural requirements
    • or injunctions of their community.  They
    • may possess medical deviation or disease, but as long as this does not impair
    • their reasoning, judgment, intellectual capacity, and ability to make a
    • harmonious personal and social adaptation, they may be regarded as psychically
    • sound or normal.”   Campbell’s
    • Psychiatric Dictionary, 2004, pg. 446
  3. žEpigenetic principle
    • -Each stage has events or crises to be resolved for development to proceed smoothly
    • -Subsequent stages affected by failure in previous ones
  4. Developmental
    žPhysical Development

    žLanguage Development

    žCognitive Development

    žEmotional/Psychological Development
  5. Theodore Lidz’
    factors accounting for phasic
    nature of life cycle
    žAcquisition of many abilities must wait for physical maturation

    žCognitive development has significant role in development of other areas

    • žSociety establishes roles and
    • expectations at different ages and statuses

    • žChildren attain attributes and capacities for self-direction and controlling impulses by internalizing
    • parental characteristics

    žChanges in physical abilities at puberty and old age require changes in self-concept and attitudes
  6. Behavioral
    • žBirth to 4 wks:  Hand-to-mouth
    • reflex, rooting    reflex, Babinski reflex, visual   tracking

    ž 28 wks(7months):  Sits steadily, leaning forward on   hands, bounces actively when placed   in standing position.

    ž52 wks(13months):  Walks with one hand held; stands   alone briefly

    ž18 months(1 and 1/2 year):coordinated walking, seldom falls;   hurls ball; walks up stairs with one   hand held

    ž2 yrs:  Runs well, no falling, kicks large ball; goes up and down stairs alone; fine motor skill increase
  7. Developmental
    Stage Models
    • žFreud – psychosexual development
    • Erik Erickson Stage Theory
  8. žFreud – psychosexual development
    • -Oral phase from birth to 1 yr
    • -Anal phase from 1-3yrs
    • -Phallic phase from 3-5yrs
    • -Latency phase from 5-puberty
    • -Genital phase from puberty to adulthood
  9. Erik Erickson Stage Theory
    • žThis stage covers the early school
    • years.
    • žChildren who are encouraged and
    • commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in
    • their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents,
    • teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.
  10. Jean Piaget Cognitive Development theory 
    4 stages
    • Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2yrs)
    • Preoperational Stage (2-7)
    • Concrete Operations Stage (7-11)
    • Formal Operatons Stage (11-adult)
Card Set
Developmental Explanations of Behavior, Cognitions, and Emotions
Developmental Explanations of Behavior, Cognitions, and Emotions