Clinical Pathology I - Week 1

  1. what test is the BUN for?
  2. what test is the ALT for?
  3. what is the old name for the ALT test?
  4. what do you NOT do to the animal if ALT levels are elevated?
    surgery - no anesthesia
  5. if PCV is over the high number, what does it mean?
    dehydration or shock
  6. what do you not do to the animal if it is in shock?
  7. what is hematology the study of?
    iron, hemoglobin, blood (WBC & RBC)
  8. what are the two portions of blood?
    • cellular
    • fluid
  9. what are the components of the cellular portion of blood?
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • thrombocytes
  10. what is the scientific name for RBC?
  11. what is the scientific name for WBC?
  12. what is the scientific name for platelets?
  13. what percentage of all cell are erythrocytes?
  14. normal RBC for dog
    6-7 million
  15. normal WBC for dog
    10-12 thousand
  16. what is the ratio for WBC to RBC?
  17. why do normal RBCs do not have a nucleus?
    enables more hemoglobin and therefore carry more oxygen
  18. what is the component of the fluid portion of the blood?
  19. what constitutes plasma?
    water, electrolytes and clotting factors
  20. what are the two major electrolytes in plasma?
    sodium and chloride
  21. what are electrolytes?
    minor elements with a charge
  22. how many total electrolytes?
  23. how many electrolytes are we concerned about?
  24. what are the six major electrolytes?
    • sodium
    • chloride
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • phosphate
    • magnesium
  25. what is the seventh electrolyte?
  26. how much water is in plasma?
  27. what is normal saline?
    water with sodium and chloride
  28. what is the percentage of electrolytes in normal saline?
  29. what is an alternate name for normal saline?
    isotonic saline
  30. what does "iso" mean?
    normal or same
  31. what type of fluid is blood?
  32. what fluid is preferred in the veterinary clinic over isotonic saline?
    lactated ringers
  33. what is lactated ringers?
    water and electrolytes
  34. what are the main electrolytes found in lactated ringers?
    calcium and potassium
  35. what is the constitution of all body fluids except urine?
    99% water ~0.9% sodium chloride
  36. what is water known as when in an IV bag?
  37. what does a hypotonic solution do?
    destroys RBCs
  38. what is a milliequivalent?
    number of grams in 1 mL of NS
  39. what does NS stand for?
    normal saline
  40. what is the abbreviation for milliequivalent?
  41. what is the milliequivalent amounts per liter for each electrolyte?
    • Mg ~ 2 mEq/L
    • Ca ~ 3.5 mEq/L
    • PO4 ~ 4 mEq/L
    • Na ~ 155 mEq/L
    • Cl ~ 110 mEq/L
    • K ~ 4 mEq/L
  42. what is the cellular respiration formula?
    C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
  43. which cells go through cellular respiration?
    all cells, each cell, every cell - non-dead cell
  44. which cells do not undergo cellular respiration?
    dead cells
  45. during respiration, what is released with exhale?
    water and carbon dioxide
  46. what is the chemical formula for glucose?
    C6 H12 O6
  47. How does glucose travel?
    eaten, absorbed in small intestine, and transported through blood in erythrocytes
  48. what two things are water soluble?
    sugar and amino acids
  49. what is not water soluble?
  50. since fats are not water soluble, what else does that mean?
    fats are not easily transported
  51. what two main issues are caused by fat?
    • clogged arteries around heart
    • clogged arteries around brain - stroke
  52. what part of the nephron filters toxins from the blood?
  53. what is needed for the blood to be properly filtered?
    • water
    • pressure on the water
  54. what does the cow use for grabbing food?
  55. what does the horse use for grabbing food?
  56. what enzyme do humans have in their mouth to aid in digestion?
    salivary amylase
  57. what is the route for glucose ingestion?
    mouth -> esophagus -> stomach -> digestive enzymes produced by pancreas -> small intestine absorb water and food -> carried throughout the body by the blood stream
  58. what is serum?
    the fluid portion of the blood without clotting factors
  59. what is the purpose of insulin?
    allows glucose to enter cells (it is like a key opening the door for glucose to enter the cell)
  60. when an animal is in shock, what is immediately given?
    fluids which elevates the blood pressure to allow the kidneys to properly filter out toxins
  61. what is urea?
    waste product of protein breakdown into amino acids
  62. what is PCV?
    packed cell volume: percentage of erythrocytes (RBCs) to total volume of blood
  63. what is indicated by low PVC value?
    low RBC therefore low hemoglobin and oxygen which leads to low ATP production and ultimately lethargy or sluggishness
  64. what is globulin?
  65. what is a naive protein?
    a protein that has not been exposed to the body
  66. what five things are proteins used for?
    • enzymes (amino acids)
    • antibodies
    • muscles
    • plasma membranes (ex. transport hormones)
    • hormones
  67. what food has complete percentage of the ten essential proteins?
  68. what food is close to a complete percentage of the ten essential proteins?
    red meat - 96%
  69. what is indicated by too much protein?
    too much amino acids which is then used for cellular respiration
  70. what must be removed from amino acids if being used for cellular respiration?
    ammonia aka nitrogen group (amine group)
  71. what is NH3?
    ammonia aka amine or nitrogen group
  72. what is the process name for the removal of the amine group from amino acids?
  73. where does deamination occur?
  74. what happens to the ammonia when removed in the liver?
    dumped into the blood
  75. what combines with ammonia to create urea?
  76. what is produced when urea and water are combined?
  77. what are the three signs of distress?
    • heartbeat
    • respiration
    • urine production
  78. what is shock?
    movement of blood from peripheral to internal circulation (kidney) (Dr. Moore)

    reduced cardiac output and vasodilitation (Dr. Younger)
  79. what is the definition of fluid?
    free movement
  80. what is indicated by high PCV levels in a horse?
    level of shock with colic
  81. what is the general indicators of elevated PCV levels?
    low fluids leading to increased dehydration or shock along with decreased blood pressure
  82. what is anisocytosis?
    variation in cell size
  83. what is polychromasia?
    variation in color
  84. what is reticulocyte?
    immature RBC (underdeveloped)
  85. what are the characteristics of a reticulocyte?
    larger and darker (bluish)
  86. what is the normal color of RBCs?
  87. what is a blast?
    embryonic cell
  88. how does RBCs mature?
    • larger are younger
    • smallest are oldest
  89. what are the seven stages of RBC maturation?
    • rubriblast
    • prorubricyte
    • rubricyte
    • metarubrictye
    • howell jolly
    • reticulocyte
    • normal
  90. what is poikilocytosis?
    abnormal shape
  91. what is the function of the spleen?
    remove dead and/or abnormal RBCs
  92. what three types of RBCs are mainly found in the bone marrow?
    • rubriblast
    • prorubricyte
    • rubricyte
  93. what are the four characteristics to describe a RBC?
    • anisocytosis
    • polychromasia
    • reticulocytes
    • poikilocytosis
  94. what is the normal PCV for a dog?
  95. when performing a PCV or hematocrit test, which way does the packed end of the tube face and why?
    faces out away from center; the force pulls the tube outward
  96. what displays an infection?
    elevated neutrophil count
  97. what is another name for a nucleated RBC?
  98. what does a metarubricyte or nucleated RBC indicate?
  99. what is the #1 condition associated with anemia?
    auto-immune hemolytic anemia
  100. what two things doe WBCs have?
    • nucleus
    • enzymes
  101. a segmented neutrophil with more than 4 segments is referred to as?
    hypersegmented neutrophil
  102. what does a band neutrophil look like?
    symmetrical horse shoe
  103. what is a band neutrophil?
    immature segmented neutrophil
  104. what does a segmented neutrophil look like?
    pretzel - divided into different lobes
  105. what is the common amount for segmented neutrophils?
    60-80 out of 100
  106. what is an issue with band neutrophils?
    do not have sufficient enzymes to be effectively phagocytic
  107. what is the center of an RBC referred to as?
    central pallor
  108. what are the four characteristics of a monocyte?
    • large
    • blue cytoplasm
    • white/clear vacuoles in cytoplasm
    • indented non-round nucleus/not all one color
  109. what kind of cell is large and dark in color?
  110. what is the term used for an awkward shaped RBC?
  111. what is the term for a cell with spiked edges, usually due to "speed drying"?
  112. what is the term used for RBC fragments?
  113. what is an example that can cause schistocytes?
    aspirin given to a cat
  114. what is the normal PCV of a cat?
  115. what are hypersegmented neutrophils?
    too old
  116. what are spherocytes a sign of?
    auto-immune hemolytic anemia
  117. how do spherocytes get their color?
    antibodies in the dog attack the RBCs and the RBC weight condenses making the the cell darker in color
  118. what are target cells also known as?
    • leptocytes
    • codocytes
  119. haemobartonella is now known as?
    mycoplasma haemofelis/canis
  120. what are Heinz bodies a sign of?
  121. what is common toxicity in dogs that causes Heinz bodies?
    onion toxicity
  122. what is the main identifier of a target cell?
    hemoglobin is pigmented in the center (same color as the rest of the cell)
  123. what are Howell Jolly bodies?
    nuclear remnants
  124. what three types of RBCs are associated with auto-immune hemolytic anemia?
    • spherocytes
    • reticulocytes
    • metarubricyte/nucleated RBC
  125. what leukocytes are agranular?
    • lymphocyte
    • monocyte
  126. what leukocytes are granular?
    • basophil
    • neutrophil
    • eosinophil
  127. what is rouleaux?
    RBCs that are "stacked" like coins or poker chips
  128. what is the common amount for band neutrophil?
    0-2 out of 100
  129. what is the unique characteristic of eosinophils?
    red granules in cytoplasm
  130. what is the term for a tear-drop shaped RBC?
  131. what is the term for an RBC that has two long projections (looks like a bite is missing)?
  132. what is the process of splitting or destruction of RBCs?
  133. what are the two most common WBCs?
    • segmented neutrophil
    • lymphocyte
  134. what is the normal count for lymphocytes?
    18-25 out of 100
  135. what is the term for an RBC with a slit-like central pallor?
  136. what is the unique characteristic of Heinz bodies?
    single projection
  137. what is the unique characteristic of a nucleated RBC?
    looks like an "egg"
  138. what is the unique characteristic of a spherocyte?
    smaller size and darker red
  139. what is the term for a condensed RBC?
  140. Image Upload 1
  141. what is the term given to a RBC with multiple irregularly shaped finger-like spicules?
  142. Image Upload 2
    aggregated reticulocyte
  143. what term is given to a larger cell with residual nuclear reticulum that appears as coarse or "lacey" pattern?
    aggregated reticulocyte
  144. Image Upload 3
    band neutrophil
  145. Image Upload 4
  146. Image Upload 5
    basophilic stippling
  147. what term is given to blue granules found in RBCs?
    basophilic stippling
  148. Image Upload 6
  149. what is another term for echinocyte?
    crenated RBC
  150. Image Upload 7
  151. Image Upload 8
    Dohle bodies
  152. what term is given to discrete blue-gray cytoplasm inclusions that are round or oval found in WBCs?
    Dohle bodies
  153. Image Upload 9
  154. Image Upload 10
    dirofilaria immitus
  155. Image Upload 11
    Heinz bodies
  156. Image Upload 12
    Howell Jolly bodies
  157. Image Upload 13
    hypersegmented neutrophil
  158. Image Upload 14
  159. Image Upload 15
  160. Image Upload 16
    mast cell
  161. Image Upload 17
  162. Image Upload 18
  163. Image Upload 19
    mycoplasma haemofelis
  164. Image Upload 20
  165. Image Upload 21
  166. Image Upload 22
  167. Image Upload 23
  168. Image Upload 24
    punctuated reticulocyte
  169. Image Upload 25
  170. Image Upload 26
  171. Image Upload 27
  172. Image Upload 28
    segmented neutrophil
  173. Image Upload 29
  174. Image Upload 30
  175. Image Upload 31
    target cells
Card Set
Clinical Pathology I - Week 1
Clinical Pathology - Dr. Moore