introductory craft skills

  1. apparatus
    an assembly of machines used together to do a particular job
  2. arc
    the flow of electrical current through a gas (such as air) from one pole to another pole
  3. combustible
    capable of easily igniting and rapidly burning; used to describe a fuel with a flash point at or above 100 degrees Fahrenheit
  4. competent person
    a person who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them
  5. concealed receptacle
    the electrical outlet that is placed inside the structural elements of a building, such as inside the walls. the face of the receptacle is flush with the finished wall surface and covered with a plate
  6. confined space
    a work area large enough for a person to work, but arranged in such a way that an employee must physically enter the space to perform work.  a confined space has a limited or restricted means of entry and exit.  it is not designed for continuous work.  tanks, vessels, silos, pits, vaults and hoppers are examples of confined spaces.
  7. cross-bracing
    braces (metal or wood) placed diagonally from the bottom of one rail to the top of another rail that add support to structure
  8. dross
    waste material resulting from cutting using a thermal process
  9. electrical distribution panel
    part of the electrical distribution system that brings electricity from the street source (power poles and transformers) through the service lines to the electrical meter mounted on the outside of the building and to teh panel inside the building. the panel houses the circuits that distribute electricity throughout the structure
  10. excavation
    any man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in an earth surface, formed by removing earth,  it can be made for anything from basements to highways
  11. experience modification rate (EMR)
    a rate computation to determine surcharge or credit to workers' compensation premium based on a company's previous accident experience
  12. extension ladder
    a ladder made of two straight ladders that are connected so that the overall length can be adjusted
  13. flammable
    capable of easily igniting and rapidly burning; used to describe a fuel with a flash point below 100 degrees farenheit
  14. flash
    a sudden bright light associated with starting up a welding torch
  15. flashback
    a welding flame that flares up and chars the hose at or near the torch connection.  it is caused by improperly mixed fuel
  16. flash burn
    the damage that can be done to eyes after even brief exposure to ultraviolet light from arc welding.  a flash burn requires medical attention
  17. flash goggles
    eye protective equipment worn during welding operations
  18. flash point
    the temperature at which fuel gives off enough gases (vapors) to burn
  19. foot-candle
    a unit of measure of the intensity of light falling on a surface, equal to one lumen per square foot and originally defined with reference to a standardized candle burning at one foot from a given surface
  20. ground
    the conducting connection between electrical equipment or an electrical circuit and the earth
  21. Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)
    A device that interrupts and de-energizes an electrical circuit to protect a person from electrocution
  22. guarded
    enclosed, fenced, covered, or otherwise protected by barriers, rails, covers, or platforms to prevent dangerous contact
  23. hand line
    a line attached to a tool or object so a worker can pull it up after climbing a ladder or scaffold
  24. hazzard communication standard (HazCom)
    the occupational safety and health administration standard that requires contractors to educate employees about hazardous chemicals on the job site and how to work with them safely
  25. lanyard
    a short section of rope or strap, one end of which is attached to a worker's safety harness and the other to a strong anchor point above the work area
  26. lockout/tagout
    a formal procedure for taking equipment out of sevice and ensuring that it cannot be operated until a qualified person has removed the lockout or tagout device (such as a lock or warning tag)
  27. management system
    the organization of a companys management, including reporting procedures, supervisory resposibility, and administration
  28. Material safety data sheet (MSDS)
    A document that must accompany any hazardous substance.  The MSDS identifies the substance and gives the exposure limits, the physical and chemical characteristics, the kind of hazard it presents, precautions for safe handling and use, and specific control measures
  29. maximum intended load
    the total weight of all people, equipment, tools, materials, and loads that a ladder can hold at one time
  30. mid-rail
    mid-level, horizontal board required on all open sides of scaffolding and platforms that are more than 14 inches from the face of the structure and more than 10 feet above the ground.  It is placed halfway between the toe board and the top rail
  31. occupational safety and health administration (OSHA)
    an agency of the U.S. department of labor. also refers to the occupational safety and health act of 1970, a law that applies to more than 111 million workers and 7 million job sites in the country
  32. permit-required confined space
    a confined space that has been evaluated and found to have actual or potential hazards, such as a toxic atmosphere or other serious safety or health hazard.  Workers need written authorization to enter a permit-required confined space.
  33. personal protective equipment (PPE)
    equipment or clothing designed to prevent or reduce injuries
  34. planked
    having pieces of material 2 or more inches thick and 6 or more inches wide used as flooring, decking, or scaffolding
  35. proximity work
    work done near a hazard but not actually in contact with it
  36. qualified person
    a person who, by possesion of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, training and experience, has demonstrated the  ability to solve or prevent problems relating to a certain subject, work, or project
  37. respirator
    a device that provides clean, filtered air for breathing, no matter what is in the surrounding air
  38. safety culture
    the culture created when the whole company sees teh value of a safe work environment
  39. scaffold
    an elevated platform for workers and materials
  40. shoring
    using pieces of timber, usually in a diagonal position, to hold a wall in place temporarily
  41. signaler
    a person who is responsible for directing a vehicle when the driver's vision is blocked in any way
  42. six-foot rule
    a rule stating the platforms or work surfaces with unprotected sides or edges that are six feet or higher than the ground or level below it require a fall protection
  43. slag
    waste material from welding operations
  44. spall
    a chip or fragment rock or soil that has broken off from the main mass
  45. stepladder
    a self supporting ladder consisting of two elements hinged at the top
  46. straight ladder
    a nonadjustable ladder
  47. switch enclosure
    a box that houses electrical switches used to regulate and distribute electricity in a building
  48. toeboard
    a vertical barrier at floor level attached along exposed edges of a platform, runway, or ramp to prevent materials and people from falling
  49. top rail
    a top-level, horizontal board required on all open sides of scaffolding and platforms that are more than 14 inches from the face of the structure and more than 10 feet above the ground
  50. trench
    a narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide, with a maximum width of 15 feet
  51. welding shield
    • (1) a protective screen set up around a welding operation designed to safeguard workers not directly involved in that operation.
    • (2)a shield that provides eye and face protection for welders by either connecting to a helmet-like headgear or attaching directly to a hard hat; also called a welding helmet
  52. wind sock
    a cloth cone open at both ends mounted in a high place to show which direction the wind is blowing
Card Set
introductory craft skills
chapter 1