Cardio Test 1

  1. The heart is located where?
    in the medastinum
  2. What is the outer most pericardial membrane?
  3. What is the middle layer of the pericardial membrane?
  4. What is the inner most layer of the pericardial membranes?
  5. What is another name for the visceral pericardium?
  6. What is the function of the serous fluid between the parietal and visceral membranes?
    Prevents friction
  7. Where is the serous fluid located in the heart?
    Between the parietal and visceral membranes
  8. What are the muscular walls of the chambers of the heart called?
  9. The name for the lining of the chambers of the heart is called?
  10. The function of the myocardium is to ?
    pump blood
  11. The function of the endocardium is to?
    Prevent abnormal clotting
  12. The vein that returns blood from the lower portion of the body to the right atrium is called?
    inferior vena cava
  13. What is the name of the vein that returns blood from the upper portion of the body to the right atrium?
    the superior vena cava
  14. The veins that return blood from the lungs to the left atrium are called?
    Pulmonary veins
  15. The function of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) is to?
    lower the blood pressure  by lowering blood volume
  16. The left ventricle pumps blood into the ____ which then is pumped to _____?
    aorta, body
  17. The right ventricle pumps blood into the ____ which then goes to the ____?
    pulmonary artery, lungs
  18. The general function of the valves of the heart is to ?
    Prevent back flow of blood
  19. What is the function of the chordae tendonae and papillary muscles?
    anchor the flaps of the AV valves
  20. The right and left AV valves prevent backflow of blood from the?
    from the ventricles to the atria when the ventricles contract
  21. The semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood from the?
    arteries to the ventricle when the ventricles relax
  22. The blood vessels that supply the heart itself are called?
    coronary vessels
  23. For the heart muscle the most important substance in the blood is ?
  24. Sequence of events in one heart beat?
    Cardiac Cycle
  25. Systole means?
  26. Diastole means?
  27. What is the correct sequence of blood flow?
    Right heart to lungs to left heart to body to right heart
  28. Part of the heart that initiates the heart beat?
    SA node
  29. The parts of the cardiac conduction pathway that brings about contraction of the ventricles are?
    bundle of His, bundle branches, and purkinje fibersq
  30. The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute is called?
    cardiac output
  31. The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat is called?
    Stroke volume
  32. How do you calculate cardiac output?
    Stroke volume x HR
  33. What is the ejection fraction?
    percent of blood within a ventricle that is pumped during systole
  34. The part of the brain that regulates HR is?
  35. The vagus nerves carry impulses from where ___ to _______  (increase or decrease) HR?
    the medulla, decrease
  36. Pressoreceptors are located where?
    Carotid and aortic sinuses
  37. What is the purpose of the pressoreceptors?
    The detect changes in blood pressure
  38. The cardiac accelerator center uses nerves from which nervous system?
  39. The cardiac inhibitory center uses nerves from which nerve?
    Vagus nerve
  40. A sensation of pain on the heart is caused by?
    Lack of Oxygen
  41. Chemoreceptors are located where?
    Carotid and aortic bodies
  42. What is the purpose of chemoreceptors?
    To detect changes in the blood oxygen level
  43. When the blood decreases the kidneys kick in to secrete what?
  44. Antidiuretic hormone is released by what gland?
    Posterior pituitary gland
  45. What does ADH do?
    increases water reabsorption by the kidneys thus increases blood pressure
  46. Weight gain in a patient can signify?
    Right sided heart failure
  47. What happens to the cardio vascular system as a person ages?
    • - Conduction is less effective
    • - Artherosclerosis
    • - Resting BP increases
    • - Decreased HR
    • - Vein valves are incompetent
  48. The older adult with cardiovascular problems is at risk for ?
    orthostatic hypotension
  49. True or False: Older adults commonly have s & sx that are not typical of a disorder?
  50. Edema and Jugular vein distention can signify ?
    Right sided heart failure
  51. Crackles and wheezes can signify?
    Left sided heart failure
  52. Measurements that are taken with the patient lying and sitting and standing to detect abnormal variations with postural changes?
    Orthostatic hypotension
  53. True or False: Edema can be palpated in the lower extremities and the sacrum
  54. What is a holter monitor?
    A portable ECG that records for up to 48 hours
  55. What are some things that you should teach a patient who is going to where a holter monitor?
    • To keep an accurate diary
    • To push the event button if symptoms occur
    • Not to take a shower or a bath
    • Make sure you return
  56. What is an Echocardiogram?
    it is an ultrasound of the heart
  57. What to teach the patient who is having a echo done?
    There will be no discomfort and that gel will be applied
  58. What should you monitor on a patient that is going for a thallium imaging?
    • Monitor kidney fxn
    • and assess for allergies
  59. What does the CK MB measure?
    any damage to heart muscle
  60. What can a CK MB help to diagnose?
    A MI
  61. Cardiac Triponin measures?
    cardiac cell protein
  62. Which test is most accurate in diagnosing cardiac disease?
  63. Why would you monitor magnesium levels?
    Because Mag is necessary to regulate heartbeat and blood pressure
  64. What can an decreased Mag level cause?
    cardiac arrhythmias
  65. Uses dye injected into the vascular system to visualize the vessels on radiographs
  66. e What is the necessary prep for angiography?
    • Consent
    • Assess for allergies
    • NPO for 4 hours prior
    • tell patient that dye might feel hot/burning when injected
  67. What is the post care for a angiography?
    • Monitor vital signs
    • monitor the injection site
    • monitor pulses
  68. Catheter inserted into the heart for data on oxygen saturation and chamber pressure
    Cardiac Cath
  69. What is the precare for a cardiac cath?
    • Consent
    • NPO
    • Assess Allergies
  70. What should you teach the patient that will happen during the cath?
    • The table is hard and cold
    • The table might move around
    • Might have alittle pain as the cath is inserted
    • Dye might be used
  71. What is the post care for Cardiac Cath?
    • VS
    • Monitor circulation and sensation
    • Monitor cath insertion site
    • Apply pressure
    • Immobilize extremity
  72. An xray procedure that produces real time images to help guide insertion of the cath into the heart.
  73. Therapeutic Measures for Cardio system?
    • Diet -- decrease salt
    • Oxygen-- relieve pain
    • TEDS/SCDs
  74. What are two juices that might interact with Coumadin?
    Cranberry Juice and Grapefruit juice
  75. When a patient is going for any cardiac surgery what medications might be with held?
    Meds that will increase bleeding or reduce blood volume

    such as anticoagulants
  76. What is considered a normal BP?
    • Systolic less than 120
    • Diastolic less than 80
  77. What is stage 1 hypertension parameters?
    • 140 - 159 systolic
    • 90 - 99 diastolic
  78. Stage 2 hypertension parameters?
    • 160 and above systolic
    • 100 and above diastolic
  79. Blood pressure is determined by?
    cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, and viscosity
  80. Primary hypertension pathophysiolgy
    unknown cause
  81. Secondary hypertension pathophysiology?
    has a known cause usually a sign of another problem
  82. How is hypertension diagnosed?
    Through laboratory test
  83. Risks that cannot be changed
    non-modifiable risks
  84. what are some non modifiable risks?
    • family hx
    • age
    • gender
    • ethnicity
    • diabetes mellitus
  85. Risks that can be changed
    Modifiable risks
  86. What are some examples of modifiable risks
    • blood sugar levels
    • activity level
    • smoking
    • diet
    • alcohol intake
    • sleep deficiency
  87. What is one of the most important lifestyle modification ?
    Weight reduction
  88. What can you do with your diet to help lower BP?
    • lower/reduce salt intake
    • No salt substitutes
  89. Reduce blood pressure by decreasing blood volume
  90. Example of a thiazide diuretic?
    hydrochlorothiazide (hydroDIURIL)
  91. Example of a loop diuretic?
    Furosemide (Lasix)
  92. Example of a potassium sparing diuretic?
    Spironlactone (aldactone)
  93. What are the side effects of diuretics, (loop and thiazide)
    • hypokalemia
    • fatigue
    • hypotension
  94. What is a major side effect of a potassium sparing diuretic?
  95. What should you teach patients who are taking potassium sparing diuretics to avoid?
    potassium rich foods such as oranges, bananas, salt substitutes and dried fruits
  96. This drug decreases BP by decreasing impulses to the sympathetic nervous system
    Beta Blockers
  97. What is an example of a Beta Blocker
    Metoprolol (Lopressor)
  98. What are some side effects of Beta Blockers
    • hypotension
    • decreased HR
    • fatigue
  99. This drugs blocks sympathetic nervous system on Alpha1
    Alpha 1 blockers
  100. What is an example of an Alpha1 blocker
    Minipress, Prazosin
  101. What is an example of a combination Alpha1 and beta blockers?
  102. This drug blocks the production of angiotensin 2, and thus aldosterone cannot be produced?
    ACE inhibitor
  103. What is an example of an ACE inhibitor
    Enalapril (Vasotec)
  104. What are some side effects of ACE inhibitors?
    Edema in HF patients and angioedema
  105. What is an example of a Angiotensin 2 receptor Antagonist?
    Losartan (Cozaar)
  106. What are some side effects of ARB?
    Edema in HF patients and angioedema
  107. This drug blocks Calcium channels/movement which causes vasodilation
    Calcium channel blocker
  108. What is an example of a CCB/
    Amlodipine (Norvasc)
  109. What is a side effect of CCB?
    Edema in lower extremities
Card Set
Cardio Test 1
Mr. Ipp