0.9% Sodium Chloride
Sodium chloride 0.9% increases vascular volume which consequently raises cardiac output and improves perfusion.
Salbutamol is a selective beta2 adrenoreceptor stimulant drug. This has a relaxant effect on the smooth muscle in the medium and smaller airways, which are in spasm in acute asthma attacks. If given by nebuliser, especially if oxygen powered, its smooth muscle relaxation action, combined with the airway moisturising effect of nebulisation, can relieve the attack rapidly.
Analgesic and antipyretic drug.
Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic which reduces the breakdown of blood clot.
Essential for cell metabolism. Adequate tissue oxygenation is essential for normal physiological function.Oxygen assists in reversing hypoxia, by raising the concentration of inspired oxygen. Hypoxia will, however, only improve if respiratory effort or ventilation and tissue perfusion are adequate.If ventilation is inadequate or absent, assisting or completely taking over the patients ventilation is essential to reverse hypoxia.
Antagonism of the effects (including respiratory depression) of opioid drugs.
Morphine is a strong opioid analgesic. Its particularly useful for treating continuous, severe musculoskeletal and soft tissue pain. Morphine produces sedation, euphoria and analgesia; it may both depress respiration and induce hypotension. Histamine is released following morphine administration and this may contribute to its vasodilatory effects. This may also account for the urticaria and bronchoconstriction that are sometimes seen.
Midazolam has a sedative action similar to that of diazepam but of shorter duration. The onset of action usually occurs within five minutes, but is dependent on the route of administration. In 80% of episodes convulsions have stopped after ten minutes.
An anti-emetic which acts centrally as well as on the gastro-intestinal tract.
Increases peristalsis to increase gastric emptying of the stomach.
Antimuscarinic bronchodilator drug, blocks M3 receptors in airway smooth muscle, reducing parasympathetic stimulation causing bronchodilation.
- 1. Ipratropium bromide is an antimuscarinic bronchodilator drug . It may provide short term relief in acute asthma, but beta2 agonists (such as Salbutamol) generally work more quickly.
- 2. Ipratropium bromide is considered greater benefit in:
- a. Children suffering acute asthma
- b. Adults suffering with COPD
Glucocorticoid drug that reduces inflammation and suppresses the immune response.
- A potent vasodilator drug resulting in:· Dilation of coronary arteries/relief of coronary spasm.
- Dilation of systemic veins resulting in lower pre-load.
- Reduces blood pressure.
Glucose 40% Oral Gel
Rapid increase in blood glucose levels via buccal absorption
Reversal of hypoglycaemia.
Glucagon is a hormone that induces the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, thereby raising blood glucose levels
Furosemide is a potent diuretic with a rapid onset (within 30 minutes) and short duration.
Inhaled analgesic agent
Central nervous system depressant, acts as an anticonvulsant and sedative.
Works on chlorine channels causing GABA activation and hyperpolarisation of cell membrane.
Inhibits platelet aggregation
Blocks the response of ADP.
An antihistamine that blocks the effect of histamine during a hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Also has anticholinergic properties.
Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G)
- Antibiotic: broad spectrum
- Inhibits bacterial cell wall repair.
Antimuscarinic limiting parasympathetic stimulation.
- May reverse the effects of vagal overdrive
- May increase heart rate by blocking vagal activity in sinus bradycardia, second degree or third degree heart block.
- Enhances A-V conduction
- Has an anti-platelet action which reduces clot formation.
- Analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory
Class 3 Antiarrhythmic; lengthens cardiac action potential and therefore effective refractory period . Prolongs QT interval on ECG.
- Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic that stimulates both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. As a result myocardial and cerebral blood flow is enhanced during CPR and CPR becomes more effective due to increased peripheral resistance which improves perfusions pressures.
- Reverses allergic manifestations in acute anaphylaxis
- Relieves bronchospasm in acute severe asthma