Dental fear/Topical

  1. Pain perception
    The physical process of receiving a painful stimulus and transmitting the information through the nervous system to the brain
  2. Pain reaction
    The personal interpretation and response to the pain message
  3. Factors that influence pain reaction
    • Age
    • Fatigue
    • Emotional state
    • Cultural behavior
    • Ethnic behavior
  4. Pain control mechanisms
    • Remove painful stimulus
    • Block pathway of pain message
    • Prevent pain reaction by raising threshold
    • Depress CNS
    • Use psychosedation methods
  5. What does NSAID's stand for
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  6. What are the actions of NSAIDS
    • Inhibit generation of pain message
    • Suppresses onset of pain
    • Decreases pain severity
  7. What is dental fear
    The body's response to an immediate threat
  8. Dental anxiety
    • Nonspecific unease, apprehension or negative thoughts about what may happen durin an appointment
    • Can also lead to the perception that a normally non painful stimulus is painful
  9. Phobia
    Fear or anxiety that is irrational, persistent and unreasonable in relation to the actual threat
  10. Effects of fear on the body
    • Flight or flight response
    • Dilation of pupils
    • Decrease in salivation
    • Increase respiration
    • Increased BP
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased blood glucose
  11. Pain threshold
    The point at which an uncomfortable stimulus is perceived as painful
  12. Pain tolerance
    The amount of pain that is the most the individual can bear
  13. Vicarious learning
    Occurs when anxiety is acquired by watching, listening to or reading about the experience of others
  14. What are the 2 major groups of dental local anesthetics
    Ester & Amide Anesthetic Drug
  15. All currently used local injectable anesthetic agents are
  16. Characteristics of Ester
    • Widely used in topical agents
    • Higher incidence of allergic reactions
    • Less effective and shorter duration
    • Metabolized in blood plasma
  17. Charactersistics of Amides
    • Low incidence of allergic reactions
    • Potential for toxicity
    • Metabolized by the liver
    • Causes vasodilation of local blood vessels
  18. Symptoms of toxicity
    • Blurry vision
    • Dizziness of lightheadedness
    • Shivering
    • Drowsiness
    • Diffuculty breathing
    • Seizures
    • Ringin in ears
    • Headache
  19. A mild allergic reaction can include
    Sweeling and raised welts on the skin that can itch and burn
  20. Factors affecting the absorption of drug
    • Thickness of SS epithelial covering
    • Degree of keratinization
  21. Topical Agents Amides
    • Lidocaine & Lidocaine Hydrochloride
    • Only amide used alone as topical
  22. Topical Agents Ester
    • Benzocaine
    • -7.5-20% formulations
    • -Liquids, gel, ointment and spray
    • -Low toxicity
    • -May cause allergic reaction with prolonged use
    • -Only topical anesthetic available OTC
    • -Most widely used
    • Tetracaine HCL
    • -Longer effect, readily absorbed & more potential for toxicity
  23. What is the action of topical anesthetic
    Desensitizes the mucous membrane by anesthetizing the terminal nerve endings
  24. What are the indications for use of non-injectable anesthesia
    • Mild to moderate discomfort from scaling
    • Needle phobic adults
  25. What are the contraidications for non-injectable anesthesia
    • Allergy to amide
    • Methomoglovinemia
  26. What are the 4 gel contents of Oraquix
    • 2.5% Lidocaine & Prilocaine
    • Poloxamers-thermosetting agents
    • Ph adjuster-hydrochloric acid
    • Purified water
  27. What is the initial onset & duration of the Lidocaine transoral patch
    • Initial onset 21/2 -5 minutes
    • Duration is 45 minutes
  28. Lidocaine ointment
    • Initial onset 1-2 minutes
    • Optimum application 3-5 minutes
    • Duration is 15 minutes
  29. Tetracaine combined with other drugs
    • Initial onset 2 minutes
    • Duration 20-60 minutes
  30. Benzocaine
    • Initial onset 30 seconds
    • Optimum application 1-2 minutes
    • Duration 5-15 minutes
  31. Oraquix
    • Initial onset 30 seconds
    • Duration 14-31 minutes
Card Set
Dental fear/Topical
Dental fear/Topical