Key Associations

  1. Actinic (solar) keratosis
    squamous cell carcinoma
  2. acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
    Cushing's ulcer (increase ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
  3. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
    Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
  4. Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon
    Skip lesions (Crohn's disease: autoimmune)
  5. Aneurysm, dissecting
  6. Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
  7. Aortic aneurysm, ascending
    tertiary syphilis
  8. Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
    Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia, and confusion)
  9. Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
    Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
  10. Bacteremia/pneumonia (IV drug user)
    S. aureus
  11. Bacteria associated with stomach cancer
    H. pylori
  12. Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  13. Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
    Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. penumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
  14. Benign melanocytic nevus
    Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
  15. Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
    Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion)
  16. Brain tumors (adults)
    Supratentorial : mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforma) > meningioma > schwannoma
  17. Brain tumor (kids)
    Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
  18. breast cancer
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
  19. Breast mass
    • 1. fibrocystic change
    • 2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
  20. Breast tumor (benign)
  21. Bug in debilitated, hospitalized penumonia patient
  22. Cardiac primary tumor (kids)
  23. cardiac manifestation of lupus
    Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting mitral)
  24. cardiac tumor (adults)
    • 1. metastasis
    • 2. primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
  25. Cardiomyopathy
    Dilated cardiomyopathy (40% are familial)
  26. cerebellar tonsillar herniation
    arnold-chiari malformation (often causes hydrocephalus)
  27. chronic arrhythmia
    atrail fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
  28. chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
    predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
  29. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
    DES exposure in utero
  30. congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    21-hydroxylase deficiency
  31. congenital cardiac anomaly
  32. congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
    Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
  33. constrictive pericarditis in developing world
  34. coronary artery involved in thrmobosis
  35. cretinism
    Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
  36. Cushing's syndrome
    • 1. corticosteroid therapy
    • 2. excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
  37. Cyanosis (early; less common)
    Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
  38. Cyanosis (late; more common)
  39. Death in CML
    Blast crisis
  40. Death in SLE
    Lupus nephropathy
  41. Dementia
    • 1. alzheimer's disease
    • 2. multiple infarcts
  42. DIC
    Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
  43. diverticulum in pharynx
    zenker's diverticulum (diagnosis by barium swallow)
  44. ejection click
    aortic/pulmonic stenosis
  45. esophageal cancer
    squamous cell carcinoma
  46. food poisoning
    S. aureus
  47. gene involved in cancer
    p53 tumor suppressor gene
  48. glomerulonephritis (adults)
    Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
  49. heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
    mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
  50. helminth infection
    • 1. enterobius vermicularis
    • 2. ascaris lumbricoides
  51. hematoma - epidural
    rupture of middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)
  52. hematoma - subdural
    rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
  53. hemochromatosis
    multiple blood transfusions ( can results in CHF and incrase risk of hepatocelullar carcinoma)
  54. Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B and C)
  55. Hereditary harmless jaundice
    Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  56. HLA-B27
    • ankylosing spondylitis
    • reiter's syndrome
    • ulcerative colitis
  57. HLA-DR3 or DR4
    Diabetes mellitus Type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
  58. Holosystolic murmur
    VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
  59. hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
    virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
  60. hypertension, secondary
    renal disease
  61. hypoparathyroidism
  62. hypopituitarism
  63. infection in blood transfusion
    hepatitis C
  64. Kidney stones
    • 1. calcium = radiopaque
    • 2. struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as
    • 3. uric acid = radiolucent
  65. late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L-->R becomes R --> L)
    Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA' results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
  66. Lysosomal storage disease
    Gaucher's disease
  67. Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  68. malignant skin tumor
    Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
  69. Mets to bone
    Breast, lung, thyroid, tests, prostate, kidney
  70. mets to brain
    Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
  71. Mets to liver
    Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and ulung carcinomas
  72. Mitral valve stenosis
    rheumatic heart disease
  73. myocarditis
    coxsackie B
  74. Neoplasm (kids)
    • 1. ALL
    • 2. cerebellar medulloblastoma
  75. Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
    membranous glomerulonephritis
  76. Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
    minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
  77. Opening snap
    Mitral stenosis
  78. Organ receiving mets
    Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
  79. organ sending mets
    Lung> breast, stomach
  80. Osteomyelitis
    S. aureus
  81. Osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell disease
  82. Osteomyelitis with IV drug use
  83. Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
    Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
  84. Ovarian tumor (benign)
    Serous cystadenoma
  85. Ovarian tumor (malignant)
    Serous cystadenocarcinoma
  86. Pancreatic tumor
  87. Pancreatitis
    EtOH and gallstones
  88. pancreatitis (chronic)
    EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
  89. Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
    • ALL: child
    • CLL: adult > 60
    • AML: adult > 60
    • CML: adult 35-50
  90. Patient with Hodgkin's disease
    Young male (except nodular sclerosis type: female)
  91. Pelvic inflammatory disease
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
  92. t [9:22]
    • Philadelphia chromosome, CML, bcr-abl
    • (may someitmes be associated iwth ALL/AML)
  93. Pituitary tumor
    • 1. prolactinoma
    • 2. somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
  94. Pneumonia, hospital acquired
  95. Primary amenorrhea
    Turner's syndrome (XO)
  96. Primary bone tumor (adults)
    Multiple myeloma
  97. Primary hyperaldosteronism
    Adenoma of adrenal cortex
  98. primary hyperparathyroidism
    • 1. adenomas
    • 2. hyperplasia
    • 3. carcinoma
  99. primary liver cancer
    hepatocellular carcinoma
  100. pulmonary hypertension
  101. recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
    Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
  102. Renal tumor
    Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndrome (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
  103. Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
    Cor pulmonale
  104. S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
    increase ventricular filling (L-->R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
  105. S4 (presystolic gallop)
    Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
  106. secondary hyperparathyroidism
    Hypocalcemia of chornic kidney disease
  107. SIADH
    small cell carcinoma of the lung
  108. site of diverticula
    sigmoid colon
  109. site of metastasis
    • 1.regional lymph nodes
    • 2. liver
  110. sites of atherosclerosis
    abdominal aorta>coronary>popliteal>carotid
  111. stomach cancer
  112. stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
    zollinger-ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
  113. t[14;18]
    follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
  114. t[8;14]
    burkitt's lymphoma
  115. temporal arteritis
    risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
  116. testicular tumor
  117. thyroid cancer
    papillary carcinoma
  118. tumor in women
    Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
  119. tumor of infancy
  120. tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
    pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
  121. tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
    Neuroblastoma (malignant)
  122. Type of Hodgkin's
    nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
  123. Type of non-Hodgkin's
    diffuse large cell
  124. UTI
    E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
  125. viral encephalitis
  126. vitamin deficiency (U.S)
    Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply)
Card Set
Key Associations
Rapid Review