Is a social, economic, and political entity distinguished by the ability to express itself through images and written language
encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed over time, and passed down from one generation to the next.
able to convey a sense of 3-D space on a 2-D surface
ex: cave drawings
use of shading in drawings
representations that imitate the actual appearance of the animals/people
ex: greek statues
those whose survival depended on the animals they could kill and the foods they could gather
these works were constructed without the use of mortar and represent the most basic form of architectural construction.
from the Celtic crom "circle" and lech "place".
a story that a culture assumes is true.
stories that have survived in cultures around the world that developed without writing
a partly underground ceremonial enclosure that dates back to Anasazi times with a hole in the floor that symbolizes the emergence of the people from the underworld.
a form of creation myth
Ex: Zuni Pueblo Emergence Tales
belief that the forces of nature are inhabited by living spirits
the practice of investing plants, animals, and natural phenomena with human form or attributes
large temple complexes topped by a sanctuary
ex: the Ziggurat at Ur
also known as Hierarchy of Scale
the most important figures are represented as larger than the others.
a class/category of story with a universal theme.
a long, narrative poem in elevated language that follows characters of a high position through a series of adventures, often including a visit to the world of the dead.
ex: the Iliad and the Oddessy, the epic of Gilgamesh
words or phrases that characterize a person
ex: "Enkidu, the protector of herdsmen"
words or phrases used in place of another to suggest a similarity between the two
ex: as when Gilgamesh is described as a "raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone"
compare two unlike things by the use of the word "like" or "as"
ex: the land shattered like a pot
scriptural fathers of the Hebrew people
men who were prophetic not in the sense of foretelling the future, but rather in the sense of serving as mouthpieces and interpreters of Yahweh's purposes.
a state ruled by a god or by the god's representative
balanced left and right
the integration of multiple perspectives into a single unified image
"writing of the gods" from the greek hieros "holy" and gluphein "th engrave"
stylized drawings that represent objects or beings, which can be combined to express ideas
pictograms used to represent sounds
signs used to indicate which category objects or beings is in question
ex: a gift to a god or goddess that was placed ina temple to ensure that the king, or perhaps some temple official, would have access to a palette throughout eternity.
conventions of representation that Egyptian culture used for the rest of its history
a place or state free from worry, pain, and the external world.
good and righteous conduct reflecting the cosmic moral order that underlies all existence
"top of the city"
citadel that could serve as a fortification, but which usually functioned as the city-state's religious center
a large open space that served as public meeting place, marketplace, and civic center.
long open arcade supported by colonnades (rows of columns)
the sculpted blocks that top columns
ex: story of Adam and Eve
a technique in which the artist hammers out the design from the inside
huge blocks of rough-hewn stone used to make walls
a system of political organization held together by ties of allegiance between a alord and those who relied on him for protection
greek jar with an egg-shaped body and two curved handles used for storing oil or wine
the greeks believed that as long as they did not overstep their bounds and try to compete with the gods (the sin of hubris) the gods would protect them
a "coming together" of men to share poety, food, and wine.
enclosed vestibule at the front of a building
the principle interior space of a building
the arrangement, proportions, and appearance of the temple foundation, columns, and lintels
Doric order, Ionic order, and Corinthian order
the innermost sanctuary housing the place where, in a temple with an oracle, the oracle's message was delivered
a row of columns that stands on the stylobate (raised platform of the temple)
the raised platform of the temple
when columns swell about 1/3 of the way up and contract again at the top
rounded two-part capital of the doric order
tabletlike stone that top enchinus (rounded capital)
the bottom layer of the entablature
celebration of male body through sculpture
the vessel in which wind and water are mixed
poem to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre
small local areas comparable to precincts or wards in a modern city
believed by the Greeks to be the most beautiful of all proportions
ratio 8:5 or 1.618:1
imaginary central line
the square panels between the beam ends under the roof
a focus on the actions of human beings, political action being one of the most important
a process of inquiry and instruction characterized by continuous question-and-answer dialogue designed to elicit a clear statement of the knowledge supposed to be held implicitly by all reasonable beings
the seat of both intelligence and character
moving from specific instances to general principles, and from particular to universal truths
seeks the eternal perfection of pure ideas, untainted by material reality
was a farce in which actors disguised themselves as satyrs (1/2 goat and 1/2 man replete with extravagant genitalia)
a broadly satirical comedy
an amusing or lighthearted play designed to make its audience laugh
basis for tragedy is conflict, but the tensions at work in tragedy (murder and revenge, crime and retribution, pride and humility, courage and cowardice) have far more serious consequences
represents opposing will
when plays were performed in sets of four
where plays were performed in the open area of the agora
side entryway to a circular performance space
the stage on which the actors performed and where painted back-drops could be hung
the 9 sister goddesses who presided over song, poetry, and the arts and sciences and gave divine inspiration
the harmonious and beautiful order of the universe
music in which different pitches were believed to evoke different emotions
age in the fourth and third centuries BCE
that regards woman as it's sexual object
procedures for testing theories about the nature of the world that, over time, would lead to the great scientific discoveries of Bacon, Galileo, and Newton
the cleansing, purification, or purgation of the soul
two premises from which a conclusion can be drawn
belief that the good life is attainable only through balanced action
the attempt to elicit an emotional response in the viewer
mythological tribe of humans possibly represents athenian greeks
gave birth to tragedy
small groups of people ranging from a dozen to 100
Paleolithic-old stone age
kinship based clans in the hundreds
settled in villages
thousands of people
has chief or leader who makes decisions
religion binds the people
specialization of labor
hundreds of thousands
king has close to a monopoly on power
judicial and police system
urban areas of civilization
wife of Akenaten
possible co-regent of Egypt
introduced monotheistic religion to Egypt
pharoah who united upper and lower Egypt
Akkadian ruler who united the Sumerian city-states in mesopotamia
Babylonian king who codified the law in writen form
Talion-eye for an eye
saw himself as a god
Alexander of Macedonia
his daring and exciting life is associated with the Hellenistic aesthetic
circular, colonnaded walkway, encloses a projecting rock that lies directly beneath its golden dome.
prophesy that the world would end in apocalypse
the coming of God on the day of judgement, and that the post-apocalyptic world would be led by a messiah
anointed one, leads post-apocalyptic world
a small, organized group that separates itself from the larger religious movement because it asserts that it alone understands god's will and therefore it alone embodies the ideals of the religion.
spread the word of his life and resurrection
comes from the greek evangelos "bearer of good"
from the greek tupos "example" or "figure"
Christians interpreted Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son, Issac, as prefiguring god's sacrifice of his son
the subject matter of a work, both literal (factual) and figurative (symbolic)
a four-part monarchy ruling the empire from capitals in Solana
a pre-scribed doctrine
the rites prescribed for public worship
meaning "common" or "popular"
became the official bible of the roman catholic church
8 four-line stanzas, each written short-long, short-long, short-long, short-long
hymn's are written this way
method of chanting, where one side of the choir responds to the other
entrance hall to church proper
a transverse aisle that crossed between the nave and the apse in a church
a long arm, the nave, with 3 shorter arms, the apse and the arms of the transept
a zone with windows that lit the length of the church
central plan church
so called because of its circular structure, topped by a dome
the reconciliation of different rites and practices into a single philosophy or religion
cults whos initiation rites were secret
triangular curving vault sections that spring from the corners of the base between arches
images, or decorative embellishments
from the greek eikon "icon" or "image" and klao "break" or "destroy"
the practice of destroying religious images
the central space opens out into semi-circular bays or niches, which themselves open, through a triple arcade, to the ambulatory
makes objects appear to tip upward and elongates and heightens figures
the scriptures of islam
the undertaking of a pilgrimage to mecca
a sacred invocation that can be translated "in the name of allah, the beneficent, ever-merciful"
meaning "narrative" or "report"
consists of sayings of muhammad and anecdotes about his life
the impassioned religious struggle that could take either of two forms: a lesser from, holy war ; or a greater form, self-control over the baser human appetites
place of prostration
many-columned covered area
"resting upon pillars"
the requirement that women be covered or veiled
simple scarf which covers the wearer from head to toe, leaving only her hands and her face (or part of her face) exposed
the art of producing artistic, stylized writing
successors to muhammad who assumed political and religious authority
persons of very near total enlightenment, but who have vowed to help others achieve buddhahood before crossing over to nirvana