Humanities Exam 1

  1. Civilization
    Is a social, economic, and political entity distinguished by the ability to express itself through images and written language
  2. Culture
    encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed over time, and passed down from one generation to the next.
  3. perspectival drawing
    able to convey a sense of 3-D space on a 2-D surface

    ex: cave drawings
  4. Modeling
    use of shading in drawings
  5. Naturalism
    representations that imitate the actual appearance of the animals/people

    ex: greek statues
  6. Hunter-gatherers
    those whose survival depended on the animals they could kill and the foods they could gather
  7. Megaliths
    "big stones"

    these works were constructed without the use of mortar and represent the most basic form of architectural construction.

    ex: Stonehenge
  8. Cromlech
    from the Celtic crom "circle" and lech "place".

    ex: Stonehenge
  9. Myth
    a story that a culture assumes is true.
  10. Oral Cultures
    stories that have survived in cultures around the world that developed without writing
  11. Kiva
    a partly underground ceremonial enclosure that dates back to Anasazi times with a hole in the floor that symbolizes the emergence of the people from the underworld.
  12. Emergence Tale
    a form of creation myth

    Ex: Zuni Pueblo Emergence Tales
  13. Animism
    belief that the forces of nature are inhabited by living spirits
  14. Anthropomorphism
    the practice of investing plants, animals, and natural phenomena with human form or attributes
  15. Ziggurat
    large temple complexes topped by a sanctuary

    ex: the Ziggurat at Ur
  16. Social Perspective
    also known as Hierarchy of Scale

    the most important figures are represented as larger than the others.
  17. Narrative Genre
    a class/category of story with a universal theme.
  18. Epic
    a long, narrative poem in elevated language that follows characters of a high position through a series of adventures, often including a visit to the world of the dead.

    • ex: the Iliad and the Oddessy, the epic of Gilgamesh
  19. Epithets
    words or phrases that characterize a person

    ex: "Enkidu, the protector of herdsmen"
  20. Metaphors
    words or phrases used in place of another to suggest a similarity between the two

    ex: as when Gilgamesh is described as a "raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone"
  21. Simile
    compare two unlike things by the use of the word "like" or "as"

    ex: the land shattered like a pot
  22. Patriarchs
    scriptural fathers of the Hebrew people
  23. Prophets
    men who were prophetic not in the sense of foretelling the future, but rather in the sense of serving as mouthpieces and interpreters of Yahweh's purposes.
  24. Theocracy
    a state ruled by a god or by the god's representative
  25. Symmetrical
    balanced left and right
  26. composite view
    the integration of multiple perspectives into a single unified image
  27. Hieroglyphs
    "writing of the gods" from the greek hieros "holy" and gluphein "th engrave"
  28. Pictograms
    stylized drawings that represent objects or beings, which can be combined to express ideas
  29. Phonograms
    pictograms used to represent sounds
  30. Determinatives
    signs used to indicate which category objects or beings is in question
  31. Votive
    ritual object

    ex: a gift to a god or goddess that was placed ina temple to ensure that the king, or perhaps some temple official, would have access to a palette throughout eternity.
  32. Pictorial formulas
    conventions of representation that Egyptian culture used for the rest of its history
  33. Nirvana
    a place or state free from worry, pain, and the external world.
  34. Dharma
    good and righteous conduct reflecting the cosmic moral order that underlies all existence
  35. Polis
  36. Acropolis
    "top of the city"

    citadel that could serve as a fortification, but which usually functioned as the city-state's religious center
  37. Agora
    a large open space that served as public meeting place, marketplace, and civic center.
  38. Stoa
    long open arcade supported by colonnades (rows of columns)
  39. Capitals
    the sculpted blocks that top columns
  40. Origin Myth
  41. Origin Myth
    creation myth

    ex: story of Adam and Eve
  42. Repousse
    a technique in which the artist hammers out the design from the inside
  43. Cyclopean Masonry
    huge blocks of rough-hewn stone used to make walls
  44. Feudal
    a system of political organization held together by ties of allegiance between a alord and those who relied on him for protection
  45. amphora
    greek jar with an egg-shaped body and two curved handles used for storing oil or wine
  46. Hubris

    the greeks believed that as long as they did not overstep their bounds and try to compete with the gods (the sin of hubris) the gods would protect them
  47. Symposium
    a "coming together" of men to share poety, food, and wine.
  48. Pronaos
    enclosed vestibule at the front of a building
  49. Cella
    the principle interior space of a building
  50. Elevations
    the arrangement, proportions, and appearance of the temple foundation, columns, and lintels

    Doric order, Ionic order, and Corinthian order
  51. Adyton
    the innermost sanctuary housing the place where, in a temple with an oracle, the oracle's message was delivered
  52. Peristyle
    a row of columns that stands on the stylobate (raised platform of the temple)
  53. Stylobate
    the raised platform of the temple
  54. Entasis
    when columns swell about 1/3 of the way up and contract again at the top
  55. Enchinus
    rounded two-part capital of the doric order
  56. Abacus
    tabletlike stone that top enchinus (rounded capital)
  57. Architrave
    the bottom layer of the entablature
  58. Kouros
    "young man"

    celebration of male body through sculpture
  59. Korai
  60. Krater
    the vessel in which wind and water are mixed
  61. Lyric Poem
    poem to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre
  62. Demes
    small local areas comparable to precincts or wards in a modern city
  63. Golden Section
    believed by the Greeks to be the most beautiful of all proportions

    ratio 8:5 or 1.618:1
  64. Propylon
    large entryway
  65. Parapet
    low wall
  66. Axis
    imaginary central line
  67. Contrapposto

  68. Metopes
    the square panels between the beam ends under the roof
  69. Sophists
    wise men
  70. Humanism
    a focus on the actions of human beings, political action being one of the most important
  71. Dialectic method
    a process of inquiry and instruction characterized by continuous question-and-answer dialogue designed to elicit a clear statement of the knowledge supposed to be held implicitly by all reasonable beings
  72. Psyche
    the seat of both intelligence and character
  73. Inductive Reasoning
    moving from specific instances to general principles, and from particular to universal truths
  74. Idealism
    seeks the eternal perfection of pure ideas, untainted by material reality
  75. Satyr Play
    was a farce in which actors disguised themselves as satyrs (1/2 goat and 1/2 man replete with extravagant genitalia)
  76. Farce
    a broadly satirical comedy
  77. Comedy
    an amusing or lighthearted play designed to make its audience laugh
  78. Tragedy
    basis for tragedy is conflict, but the tensions at work in tragedy (murder and revenge, crime and retribution, pride and humility, courage and cowardice) have far more serious consequences
  79. Protagonist
    leading character
  80. Antagonist
    represents opposing will
  81. Tetralogies
    when plays were performed in sets of four
  82. Orchestra
    where plays were performed in the open area of the agora

    "dancing space"
  83. Parados
    side entryway to a circular performance space
  84. Proscenium
    the stage on which the actors performed and where painted back-drops could be hung
  85. Muses
    the 9 sister goddesses who presided over song, poetry, and the arts and sciences and gave divine inspiration
  86. Cosmos
    the harmonious and beautiful order of the universe
  87. Modes
    music in which different pitches were believed to evoke different emotions
  88. Hellenistic
    age in the fourth and third centuries BCE
  89. Male gaze
    that regards woman as it's sexual object
  90. Scientific method
    procedures for testing theories about the nature of the world that, over time, would lead to the great scientific discoveries of Bacon, Galileo, and Newton
  91. Catharsis
    the cleansing, purification, or purgation of the soul
  92. Syllogism
    two premises from which a conclusion can be drawn
  93. Golden Mean
    belief that the good life is attainable only through balanced action
  94. Expressionism
    the attempt to elicit an emotional response in the viewer
  95. Lapiths
    mythological tribe of humans possibly represents athenian greeks
  96. Nietzsche
    gave birth to tragedy
  97. Bands
    • small groups of people ranging from a dozen to 100
    • kinship based
    • nomadic
    • hunter-gatherers
    • egalitarian

    Paleolithic-old stone age
  98. Tribes
    • kinship based clans in the hundreds
    • small agriculture
    • egalitarian
    • settled in villages
  99. Chiefdoms
    • thousands of people
    • villages
    • class divisions
    • has chief or leader who makes decisions
    • religion binds the people
    • ancestor worship
    • specialization of labor
  100. States
    • hundreds of thousands
    • king has close to a monopoly on power
    • literate elites
    • judicial and police system
    • slavery
    • taxes
    • urban areas of civilization
  101. Nefertiti
    • wife of Akenaten
    • possible co-regent of Egypt
  102. Akenaten
    introduced monotheistic religion to Egypt
  103. Narmer
    pharoah who united upper and lower Egypt
  104. Sargon
    Akkadian ruler who united the Sumerian city-states in mesopotamia
  105. Hammurabi
    Babylonian king who codified the law in writen form

    Talion-eye for an eye
  106. Ramses II
    saw himself as a god
  107. Alexander of Macedonia
    his daring and exciting life is associated with the Hellenistic aesthetic
  108. Ambulatory
    circular, colonnaded walkway, encloses a projecting rock that lies directly beneath its golden dome.
  109. Messianic
    prophesy that the world would end in apocalypse
  110. Apocalypse
    the coming of God on the day of judgement, and that the post-apocalyptic world would be led by a messiah
  111. Messiah
    anointed one, leads post-apocalyptic world
  112. Sect
    a small, organized group that separates itself from the larger religious movement because it asserts that it alone understands god's will and therefore it alone embodies the ideals of the religion.
  113. Evangelist
    spread the word of his life and resurrection

    comes from the greek evangelos "bearer of good"
  114. typology
    from the greek tupos "example" or "figure"

    Christians interpreted Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son, Issac, as prefiguring god's sacrifice of his son
  115. Iconography
    the subject matter of a work, both literal (factual) and figurative (symbolic)
  116. tetrachy
    a four-part monarchy ruling the empire from capitals in Solana
  117. Ecumenical
    worldwide council
  118. dogma
    a pre-scribed doctrine
  119. liturgy
    the rites prescribed for public worship
  120. vulgate
    meaning "common" or "popular"

    became the official bible of the roman catholic church
  121. iambic tetrameter
    8 four-line stanzas, each written short-long, short-long, short-long, short-long

    hymn's are written this way
  122. antiphonal
    method of chanting, where one side of the choir responds to the other
  123. narthex
    entrance hall to church proper
  124. transept
    a transverse aisle that crossed between the nave and the apse in a church
  125. latin cross
    a long arm, the nave, with 3 shorter arms, the apse and the arms of the transept
  126. clerestory
    a zone with windows that lit the length of the church
  127. central plan church
    so called because of its circular structure, topped by a dome
  128. syncretism
    the reconciliation of different rites and practices into a single philosophy or religion
  129. mystery culds
    cults whos initiation rites were secret
  130. pendentives
    triangular curving vault sections that spring from the corners of the base between arches
  131. icons
    images, or decorative embellishments
  132. iconoclasm
    from the greek eikon "icon" or "image" and klao "break" or "destroy"

    the practice of destroying religious images
  133. exedrae
    the central space opens out into semi-circular bays or niches, which themselves open, through a triple arcade, to the ambulatory
  134. reverse perspective
    makes objects appear to tip upward and elongates and heightens figures
  135. qur'an
    the scriptures of islam

    means "recitations"
  136. hajj
    the undertaking of a pilgrimage to mecca
  137. bismillah
    a sacred invocation that can be translated "in the name of allah, the beneficent, ever-merciful"
  138. hadith
    meaning "narrative" or "report"

    consists of sayings of muhammad and anecdotes about his life
  139. jihad
    the impassioned religious struggle that could take either of two forms: a lesser from, holy war ; or a greater form, self-control over the baser human appetites
  140. mosque
    place of prostration
  141. hypostyle
    many-columned covered area

    "resting upon pillars"
  142. hajib
    literally "curtain"

    the requirement that women be covered or veiled
  143. chador
    simple scarf which covers the wearer from head to toe, leaving only her hands and her face (or part of her face) exposed
  144. calligraphy
    the art of producing artistic, stylized writing
  145. caliphs
    successors to muhammad who assumed political and religious authority
  146. bodhisattvas
    persons of very near total enlightenment, but who have vowed to help others achieve buddhahood before crossing over to nirvana

    meaning "those whose essence is wisdom"
  147. stupa
    a kind of burial mound
  148. mandala
    literally "circle"

    the buddhist diagram of the cosmos
  149. mudra
    symbolic gestures
Card Set
Humanities Exam 1
Discovering the Humanities CH 1,2,AND 4