The _____, made up of
several Non-Puritan merchants, obtained a charter to settle north of the Separatist colony at Plymouth. The colony's seat of
government was located in New England, set up as self-governing colony under Gov John Winthrop.
Massachusetts Bay Company
In 1630 _____ led 11 ships and 700 passengers to New England. On the way, he delivered "A City Upon a Hill" sermon, which set out the new Puritan colony to be the ideal colony, an example to England, revive piety, and make England a nation of saints.
Governor John Winthrop was the leader of the Non-Separatist Puritans who sailed to New England in 1630. On the way, he delivered the famous sermon _____, also known as the "city upon a hill" sermon. In this speech, _____ proclaimed his hope that Puritans would establish a "godly community", (in contrast to England), that would be an example to all. _____ especially denounced the economic competition that hindered the creation of a pious community and proposed to remedy it by combined forces of religion and government.
"A Model of Christian Charity"
_____ was a minister who preached complete separation of church and state and challenged the legal basis of congregationalism. He argued that church should remain distinct from and uninvolved with political or legal matters as he
believed these would corrupt the saints and contaminate their purity. He also believed that Indians should be paid for lands taken by new settlers. Prosecuted and expelled, he moved south where he established a city he named Providence, on land he purchased from Indians. By 1647, as more dissenters moved there, Providence became based on complete freedom of religion.
_____ was founded by the Puritans in 1636 to train clergy for their congregations and to administer the community of saints. This made Massachusetts the only American colony with an educated elite class in the 17th c.
_____ was the chief architect of the Non Separatists' idea of congregationalism. He gave the idea that the control of the colony should be placed in the hands of male saints. He laid the foundations for the Puritan
theocracy. This eventually proved to be controversial and led to much dissent (Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson).
Reverend John Cotton
_____ presented a challenge to the traditional New England ways. Many of her ideas came from those of John Cotton who stressed that saints be free of religious or political control by anyone who had not undergone 'conversion.' She attacked the clergy, and ultimately claimed that there were only two saints in the colony, John Cotton and her brother in law.
She was brought to trial before the Massachusetts Bay Legislature. She was "condemned by her own words" (since she claimed she had directly communicated with Holy Spirit). She was tried twice--once for sedition and then for heresy, and was banished. Thereafter, new restrictions were placed on women. She settled in New Netherlands where she died in Dutch wars against Indians.
Anne Hutchinson's followers were known as _____, meaning they opposed the rule of law.
_____ controlled lands between the Hudson and Connecticut river valleys. As more settlers moved into New England, pressure for land led to confrontations. The English waged a ruthless campaign against them, using surprise attacks on their villages and killing under torture all they captured.
By late 1630s, Pequot resistance was crushed. Another New England conflict involving Indians is the ______ in the 1670s. The conflict began in Plymouth Plantation as Separatist Puritans, eager to expand their lands, demanded that Wampanoag Indians convert to Christianity, congregate in 'praying towns' and relinquish their lands. Metacom, a Native American leader known as King Philip, gathered two-thirds of the Native Americans of New England. Their army was as wellarmed as the Puritans. Metacom's forces started out strong, devastating the countryside and wiping out twelve of New England's 90 towns. Things changed the next year in 1676 when the Puritan militia destroyed the opposition's food supplies and sold many of the enemies into slavery. The war reduced the Indian population in New England by almost 40% and reduced open Indian resistance to white expansion. It also ended missionary work among the Indians.
King Philip's War
_____ plagued New England Puritan communities in the late 17th century (1692). Several girls in Salem Village
began behaving strangely and denouncing saints and were therefore thought to be victims of witchcraft and were immediately
imprisoned. Most often the women accused were middle-aged wives and widows. The accused mostly resided in the eastern
section of Salem, the richer side, and the accusers resided mostly in the west, the poorer side. Those condemned were executed.
Salem Witch Trials
The "witch hunt" was greatly a result of worry about the _____. Accusations of witchcraft were simply scapegoating to avoid growing tensions between farmers that were community-minded and merchants that were individually concerned. These tensions heightened realization that "city upon a hill" was no longer relevant to new generations.
new social changes
_____ received his grant or proprietorship from the crown as reward in 1632. This was the beginning of land grants being awarded to proprietors as opposed to joint stock companies. He named the large tract east of Chesapeake Bay Maryland in honor England's Queen Henrietta Maria. He exercised broad powers despite the existence of an elected assembly, which had to approve all laws, and despite the fact that matters of trade and war remained under the jurisdiction of the Crown. He intended the new colony as a haven for English Catholics, though it was mostly settled by Protestants. Catholics held important offices in government and dominated the economy as large planters. He enacted Act Religious Toleration in 1649.
_____ was passed in 1649, the first such law in colonial North America. It was to tame the religious tension that had gradually developed in Maryland as Catholics and Protestants argued over distribution of power (Catholics
were large planters and controlled the appointive upper house, while Protestants were mostly tenant farmers and sought office in the elective lower house). The Protestant majority eventually repealed the act.
Act of Religious Toleration
Bacon's Rebellion began in 1676, when _____ , a member of Virginia's Royal Council, was elected by many settlers to lead them against nearby Indians. _____ wanted authority to wage war against all Indians. Pressured by former indentured servants seeking cheap land on the frontier, Virginia passed a law that stipulated that all Indians who left their villages were to be considered enemies and their lands could be confiscated. This unleashed a campaign of violence against them. The Governor recalled _____ and his troops. _____ then turned against Virginia, offering freedom to slaves and servants, to undermine the
economic backbone of the landed elite. His death of dysentery brought the rebellion to an end.
_____ revealed a society "under deep internal stress"--the inability of the governor and legislative body to control the land-hungry ex-indentured servants as well as the fragile hold of the governor on individuals living within the colony; it also reflected the scramble for Indian lands as more people settled in the region and as freed indentured servants moved to the frontier seeking cheap land.
_______ was the strict and religiously intolerant leader of the New Netherlands colony. The involvement of his colony in the fur trade often led to clashes with the Iroquois and the Algonquians. He expanded New Netherlands by
conquering New Sweden (present day New Jersey and Delaware and southeastern Pennsylvania) in 1655, which led to armed
conflict with the Algonquians. His lands were settled by Dutch, Swedes, English Quakers, Anglicans, Puritans, Scottish Presbyterians, and Dutch Calvinists. Economic opportunities helped maintain religious harmony until he was forced to peacefully surrender his land to England’s Charles II in 1664.
_____ were a religious body originating in England in the middle of the 17th c. led by George Fox. Claiming that no theologically trained priest is needed to establish communion between the soul and God, Fox taught that
everyone could receive understanding and guidance in divine truth from their own inner light.
Society of Friends/Quakers
The Friends regarded sacraments as nonessential to Christian life. They refused to attend worship in the established church and to pay tithes. They also resisted the requirement to take oaths and opposed war. Believing in the equality of all men and women, Friends would not remove their hats before their alleged superiors. Consequently, they were subject to persecution in England. They settled in Rhode Island and in _____, where in 1682 William Penn established his colony. After the Revolution, Friends took part in major reform movements: abolitionism, prison reform, improvement of insane asylums, mitigation of penal code, and betterment of education.
_____ was appointed as proprietor of the last unallocated tract of English territory--Pennsylvania. A Quaker, he founded
the colony as “holy experiment” and offered Quakers the opportunity to make laws according to their ideals. Pennsylvania seemed
the ideal community: religious toleration and economic opportunity allowed Indians, Quakers, Presbyterians, Baptists, Anglicans,
and Catholics to live in harmony. He founded Philadelphia with a grid design, allowing for parks, and his frame of government
created a strong executive under his leadership. Under Penn, Indian lands were bought to accommodate increasing numbers of
settlers. Named "The City of Brotherly Love," Philadelphia became the capital of PA and a major port.
_____ (constitution), established by William Penn, featured a strong executive branch (a governor and
governor's council) and a lower chamber (the assembly) with limited power. Penn hated intolerance and arbitrary governance, so
he offered Quakers the opportunity to make laws according to their ideals. Quakers dominated the lower chamber and Penn
often named them to government positions. Penn's "peaceable kingdom" turned into a mess after he returned to England for about
15 years, as large planters refused to pay taxes and tariffs. By the 18th c, the legislature was reduced to one chamber and was
allowed to initiate legislation. Nonetheless, PA remained one of the more stable colonies in British North America.
Frame of Government