"______ are generally accepted customs of right living and conduct and an individual's practice in relation to these customs"
The individuals conscience helps guide their adherence to certain ______ behaviors and results in shame or guild with immoral behavior. ______ are influenced by religious writings.
Who developed the Three Stages of Moral Development? What are the 3 stages and what ages do they include?
- conventional: 7-12
- postconventional: 12 and over
Kholberg's Preconventional Stage of Morality
- age 2-7
- The child has no real understanding of the values themselves and accepts the authority of others.
- The child is focused on personal satisfaction.
- Morality is further learned through experience with obedience and punishment.
- They are responding to cultrual values of right and wrong, good and evil.
Kholberg's Conventional Stage of Morality
- age 7-12
- The child conforms to societal expectations of family, group, or nation in order to win the approval of authority figures.
- Focus becomes fixed on the rules, social order, and respect for authority.
Kholberg's Post Conventional Stage of Morality
- age 12 and up
- Focus is the develpment of the social contract and autonomous decisions apart from outside authorities.
- Child establishes a social-contract orientaion and attempts to confrom to the ever changing values and demands of society.
- Finally, abstract qualities such as justice and respect for the rights and dignity of others become important and one's conscience becomes the final orbiter in regard to ethical dilemmas. The individual is essentially morally autonomous and decides what is right through personal conscience.
What is ethics?
- Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerning moral considerations.
- It is a system or code of conduct and morals that are meaningful to an individual or group.
- Study of acceptable conduct and moral judgement.
- A system of understanding determination and motivation based on individual conception of right and wrong.
What is the difference between morals and ethics?
- Our moral principles give us a sense of right and wrong and desire to do the right thing.
- Professional ethics define correct moral behavior in the context of performing professional duties
How does experience affect ethics?
Individual experiences influence the set of beliefs held by an individual.
Influences on a personal values system include:
- socioeconomic conditions
- family and friends
- geographic location
- cultural and heritage traditions
How are ethics and conscience different?
- Ethics involve a series of systematic beliefs guided by society.
- Conscience refers to thoughts about one's personal beliefs and actions.
Ethics are built into us (being intrinsic) though interpretations of ethical situations may vary.
What are values and how are they expressed?
A value is a quality or standard that is desirable or worthy of esteem in itself.
- Expressed in:
- the standard of conduct the imaging professional endorses or tries to maintain
Who was values developed by and what does values do for us?
- allows us to consider alternatives
- enables the individual to discover, analyze and prioritize what he or she has
- enables the imaging professional to organize values into a personallyy meaningful system
What are the 3 Groups of Values?
(values may conflict with one another, with the imaging professional's duties, and with patients rights)
Beliefs and attitudes held by an individual that provide a foundation for behavior and the way the individual experiences life.
Values specific to people or culture. A communal value system that is held by and applied to a community/group/society.
What is an awareness of the conduct, aims, and qualities defining a given profession?
Professionalism-familiarity with professional codes of ethics, and understanding of ethical schools of thought, patient professinoal interaction models, and patient rights
What does the ARRT Standards of Ethics include?
it is a two-part document that includes the Code of Ethics (aspirational, what we are striving to do-GUIDELINES) and Rules of Ethics (more specific list of standards-RULES)
What is the purpose of the Code of Ethics?
To present a framework for a systematic examination of beliefs that may lead the tech to an understanding of personal and professional morality and responsibility
The development of a code of ethics is one of the indentifiying steps in the sequence of the transformation of a semi-profession into a profession
What are characteristics of a well designed ethical code?
- List the principles and rules defining ethically sound practice.
- Encourages professionals to consider the implications of their actions.
- Educates outsiders about the sort of care they may expect.
- Serves a regulatory function by specifiying a standard of conduct by which all members of a profession must abide.
- Many certifying bodies in imaging have their own code of ethics.
When did ethics begin?
Prehistoric times, the standards of ethical behavior were develped after customary behaviors and laws were violated.
(ethics is not determined by strict rules or rigid guidlines and can change over time)
Who was the father of Ethics?
Plato was a student of _______ and _______ was a student of Plato.
Who set the foundations for organized thinking about ethics?
In what year was Confucius born? Socrates?
What method was taught by asking questions instead of lecturing?
In the 5th and 6th centuries BC, early moral philosophy and the Hippocratic Oath were developed by whom?
Pythagoras and Hippocrates
Who is responsible for the theory of morality and the influence it has on human behavior? What time period was this?
Who provided the world with an ethical theory based on religion? What time period was this?
- Saint Thomas Aquinas
- 13th century
In the 17th-19th century, what three people were credited with developing two of the most common tradition ethical theories? What were the theories?
- Immanual Kant, Jeremy Benthum, and John Stuart Mill
- denotology and utilitarianism
In which century was the "Birth of Bioethics"? What three people were involved?
- W.D Ross of Oxford University
- John Rawls of Harvard
- L. Kohlberg
Who put forth the "Natural Law Theory" of the Roman Catholic Church? What did this theory state?
- Saint Thomas Aquinas
- Stated that people could discover moral principles, which maybe described as objective truths, simply by exploring the nature of things and applying reason. He felt "the ability to reason is a unique God-given trait"
Who developed a set of rules geared toward governing professional behaviors in the 20th century?
W.D. Ross of Oxford University
Who developed the principle of Justice? What did this principle state?
- John Rawls of Harvard
- Used the strength and weakness of common ethical theories to derive a set of principles providing equal liberty for all while addressing the needs of the less fortunate.
In which century is the society's needs and professional reactions noted?
The branch of ethics dealing with dilemmas faced by medical professionals, patients, and their families and friends.
Biomedical Ethics OR Bioethics
Bioethics is based on what law?
Saint Thomas Aquina's natural law ethics
People could discover moral principles, which maybe descrived as objective truths, simply by exploring the nature of things and applying reason. "The ability to reason is a unique God-given trait."
Ethical decisions of healthcare that involve determination for the use of a specific resource and who will receive that resource.
- ex. organ donation
Ethical decisions of healthcare that occur at a higher level. Determinations are made for all individuals within a certain group regardless of the types of individuals making up the group.
- Macroethics (has to do with laws)
- ex. Obamacare
What are the 3 types of ethics?
- Normative Ethics (virtue-based, consequential approach(utilitarianism), and deontology(duty-based or rights based))
- Applied Ethics
The Greek work meta means _______.
The ethics of ethics- deals with the nature and the source of ethics requiring intensive examination and deep reflection.
Considers general issues such as the meaning of "right/wrong" or "good/bad," the origins of morals, whether morality should vary for different people, etc.
Does not resolve practical dilemmas.
Involves the standards by which right and wrong are determined within or guided by a society.
Example: The Golden Rule
The Three Schools of Thought or Approaches withing Normative Ethics.
- Virtue Ethics
- Consequentialism or Telology (Utilitarianism is a method)
An ethical school of thought in which decisions are based on the consequences or outcomes of a given act: the good of an activity is evaluated based on whether immediate harm is balanced with future benefits.
Consequentialism or Teleology
Advocates providing the greatest good for the greatest number.
Consequentialism or Teleology
What is deontology?
- "Duty based ethics"
- An ethical school of thought that bases decision making on individual motive rather than consequences and examines the significance of actions themselves.
Do not permit the greater good to override an individuals rights.
Immanuel Kant developed what theory?
The basic "right" or "wrong" of an act depends upon its intrinsic nature rather that upon the situation or the consequences (only looking for right or wrong. dont care about consequences)
Based on Saint Thomas Aquina's natural law ethics
- Nothing is good in and of itself except a "good will"
Focuses on the use of practical wisdom and moral character for emotional and intellectual problem solving and considers:
-Careful analysis and considerations of consequences
-Rules established by society
-Short term effects
Virtue Ethics (Normative)
Involves the investigation of morally controversial issues. The issue must be controversial in the sense that there is more than one viewpoint. The issue must be classified as a moral issue
- Applied Ethics
- ex. euthanasia and abortion
What are the 5 Models used in Ethical decision making?
- Engineering-provider views pt as condition or procedure
- Paternal/Priestly-provider thinks he knows whats best for pt
- Collegial-mutual cooperation between provider and pt
- Contractual-business relationship where provider and pt both have obligations, rights, and responsibilities
- Covenantal agreement b/w provider and pt grounded on traditional values
created when there is an obvious correct solution to an ethical problem but institutional constraints prohibit the correct solution from being applied
- Ethical Distress
- ex-placing pt on vent w/o assessing them, if assessed they would have experienced oxygen deprivation too long
Occurs when there are questions regarding who is responsible or under whose authority something falls. Also, who has legal authority to make decisin for pt.
Locus of Authority Issue
Involves a situation in which there is more than one solution to the problem
Problems that arise in association withthe distribution of benefits and burdens on a societal basis. In healthcare it involves the allocation of scarce resources.
- Ethical Dilemma of Justice
- Distributive Justice