1. What is the World Health Organization (WHO) ?
    the directing and coordinating authority for international health within the united nations
  2. What does the WHO do?
    • coordinate a range of strategies aimed at reducing global burdens of disease and promoting human development
    • records health statistics for each country
    • publishes the World Health Report that highlights a specific health issue along with relevant statistics
  3. Developing countries are usually distinguished by these indicators:
    • low income, less industrialised with more rural activities
    • high mortality and low life expectancy, high under 5 and maternal mortality
    • high prevalence of communicable diseases and poor access to healthcare services
  4. Developed countries are usually distinguished by these indicators:
    • are industrialised and have higher incomes per person
    • have very low under 5 and adult mortality as well as a high life expectancy
    • have good access to health services, and high expenditure on health technologies and drugs
    • have low levels of communicable diseases
  5. Mortality stratum A
    • very low child mortality and very low adult mortality
    • Australia Singapore USA Britain Japan
  6. Mortality stratum B
    • low child mortality and low adult mortality
    • China Indonesia Vietnam
  7. Mortality stratum C
    • low child mortality and high adult mortality
    • Ukraine Russian Federation Hungary
  8. Mortality stratum D
    • high child mortality and high adult mortality
    • India Afghanistan Iraq Nigeria
  9. Mortality stratum E
    • high child mortality and very high adult mortality
    • Zimbabwe Zambia South Africa
  10. the definition of Sustainability
    meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
  11. the Human Development Index (HDI) is a measurement that
    • combines measures of life expectancy, literacy, education levels and income.
    • provides a single statistic for human development within countries
  12. low income for individuals may mean limited access to
    • health services
    • medications
    • education
    • employment
    • housing
    • food
  13. what happens to countries when the population doesn't have access to employment and income?
    countries cannot generate income from taxes which means that infrastructure (hospitals, schools) cannot be provided
  14. Gender equality is:
    • the equal valuing of the roles of men and women
    • overcoming stereotypes and prejudices so that both sexes equally contribute to, and benefit from, social, economic, cultural and political developments
  15. Gender Inequality is
    • the social, economic, political and legal interpretation of the differences between sexes that leads to inequality
    • having unequal access to education and health services
    • social customs that force girls into early marriage and child bearing that have dangerous consequences to their health
    • high levels of violence against women
  16. what impact can Conflict have on a country
    infrastructure like hospitals and community resources may be damaged during conflict and take years to restore, impacting access to health services
  17. Political Stability leads to:
    • improvement in economic and business environments
    • increased incomes can improve access to health care, food security and education
    • political stability means that money can be spent on health services rather than on military
  18. Education
    • increases the awareness of health on a personal and community basis
    • allows access to employment that can provide income to obtain adequate food, access to safe water, sanitation and health care
    • provides knowledge about health, the prevention of disease, and sanitary hygiene practices
  19. to attain good health, the following should be accessible:
    • education about disease
    • adequate food supply, safe water and sanitation
    • maternal and child health care
    • immunisation
    • essential drugs, often not available in developing countries
  20. Physical Environments can affect health through:
    • lack of access to clean water and sanitation
    • climate and weather, which can exert strong influences on health (heat waves, natural disasters)
    • human induced climate change, which has implications for health as it may affect food and water supplies, and patterns of infectious diseases linked to ecosystem change (malaria)
  21. MDG 1:
    eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  22. MDG 2
    achieve universal primary education
  23. MDG 3
    promote gender equality and empower women
  24. MDG 4
    reduce child mortality
  25. MDG 5
    improve maternal health
  26. MDG 6
    combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  27. MDG 7
    ensure environmental sustainability
  28. MDG 8
    develop a global partnership for development
  29. Importance of MDGs
    • eradicating poverty can only be achieved through strong partnerships and increased action from rich countries by expanding trade, relieving debt, transferring technology and providing aid
    • the MDGs place human wellbeing and poverty reduction at the centre of global development adjectives, and provide the building blocks for human development
  30. Health is
    a complete state of physical, social and mental wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease
  31. Human Development aims to
    • create an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.
    • it places importance on participating in the life of the community and having input into decisions
  32. Sustainability means
    meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Card Set
health and human development unit 4 outcome 1 introducing global health and human development