Spain and Portugal.txt

  1. Name the 6 official quality levels of Spanish wine (best to lowest)
    • Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa) - Qualified DO
    • Denominacion de Origen (DO) - Denomination of Origin, each district has its own Consejos Reguladores
    • DO Pagos wines (aka Vino de Pago Calificado) - Single estates, not necessarily within a DO
    • Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica (VCIG) - Quality Wines with Geographical Indication
    • Vino de la Tierra (VdlT) - Country Wine, min 60% from that region
    • Vino Comarcal (VC) - Local Wine (not an official quality level but fits here)
    • Vino de Mesa (VdM) - Table Wine, no vintage allowed until recently
  2. Name the 2 DOCa regions
    • 1988: introduced classification
    • 1991: Rioja
    • 2000: Priorat
  3. Name the 11 DO Pagos wines
    • Castile-La Mancha: Campo de la Guardia, Dehesa del Carrizal, Dominio de Valdepusa, Finca Elez, Pago Guijoso, Pago Casa del Blanco, Pago Florentino, Calzadilla
    • Navarra: Senorio de Arinzano, Prado de Irache, Pago de Otazu
  4. What is Grandes Pagos de Espania?
    A marketing association for single wine estates from all of Spain's regions
  5. What is DO de Pago (aka Vino de Pago Calificado)
    • Single estate wines (a force for modernization in Spain)
    • May be in DOCa, DO, or VdlT regions
  6. Name the 19 Grandes Pagos de Espania wines
    • San Roman
    • Aalto
    • Mauro
    • Gran Caus
    • Cervoles
    • Mas Doix
    • Dehesa del Carrizal Coleccion
    • Reserva Santa Rosa
    • Finca Sandoval
    • Finca Valpiedra
    • Guelbenzu Lautus
    • Casa Castillo Pie Franco
    • Luna Beberide
    • Manuel Manzaneque Nuestra Seleccion
    • Vallegarcia Viognier
    • Dominio de Valdepusa Emeritus
    • Gran Calzadilla
    • Secastilla
    • Fillaboa Finca Monte Alto
  7. What does Consejos Reguladores mean?
    Regulatory Board
  8. Name the main black grapes of Spain
    • Minimum 85% of a red Rioja blend (95% if destemmed) must be:
    • Tempranillo (Tinto Fino)
    • Garnacha (Grenache)
    • Mazuelo (aka Carinena, Carignan)
    • Graciano
    • Maturana Tinta
    • Experimental grapes such as Monastel or Cabernet Sauvignon may make up the remainder
  9. Name some synonyms for Tempranillo
    • Cencibel
    • Tinto Fino
    • Tinto de Pais
    • Tinta de Toro
    • Tinta Roriz (only name for Tempranillo in Portugal)
  10. Name some synonyms for Carignan
    • Carinena
    • Mazuelo
  11. Name some synonyms of Granache
    • Spain: Aragon, (Tinto) Aragones, Garnacha Tinta, Garnacho Tinto, Garnatxa, Lladoner
    • France: Alicante, Grenache Noir
    • Italy: Granaccia, Granacha
    • Sardinia: Cannonau
  12. Name the main white grapes of Spain
    • Viura (Macabeo)
    • Malvasia
    • Garnacha Blanca
    • Airen
    • Chardonnay
    • Verdejo
    • Albarino
  13. Name the 5 Cava (sparkling wine) grapes of Spain
    • Parellada
    • Xarel-lo
    • Macabeo
    • Chardonnay
    • Pinot Noir
  14. Name the 3 subzones of Rioja
    • Rioja Alta - best subzone; structure and ageworthy; clay soils with chalk (whites) and iron (Tempranillo)
    • Rioja Alavesa - Tempranillo predominant; soils; chalky soils; maritime climate
    • Rioja Baja - Garnacha predominant; overlaps Navarra; clay soils; warm and dry
  15. Name the aging requirements of Rioja Crianza, Reserva & Gran Reserva
    • Reds: 2/3/5 years (1/2/2 years in oak)
    • Whites: 1/2/4 years (6 months in oak)
  16. Name some top Rioja Producers
    • Baron de Ley
    • Marques de Crinon
    • Marques de Murrieta
    • Marques de Riscal
    • Bodega Muga
    • La Rioja Alta
    • CVNE (Compania Vinicola del Norte de Espana = Wine Company of Northern Spain)
  17. Name a producer of traditional Rioja
    Lopez de Heredia
  18. What was the world's first demarcated wine region?
    • 1560: Rioja (named after RIver OJA)
    • Spain's first DO in 1925
    • Spain's first DOCa in 1991
  19. Name the best vintages for Rioja
    • 2004
    • 2001
    • 1995
  20. Name the 5 districts of Navarra
    • Ribera Alta - finest wines; Viura important too
    • Ribera Baja - finest wines; very hot and dry; Garnacha predominant
    • Tierra Estalla - rosados from Tempranillo
    • Valdizarbe - smallest
    • Baja Montana - highest and wettest
  21. What is Navarra known for?
    Rosado wines
  22. Name the main black grapes of Navarra
    • Garnacha (Grenache) - most widely planted grape (red or white) in Navarra
    • Tempranillo
    • Cabernet and Merlot
  23. Name the main white grapes of Spain
    • Viura (Macabeo)
    • Malvasia
    • Chardonnay
  24. What kind of oak is used in most Spanish wines?
    American oak (Quercus alba)
  25. Name the most important grape(s) of Priorat
    Garnacha, Carinena, Cabernet, Syrah
  26. Describe the Gratallops Project (Gratallops is a municipality in Priorat)
    • Plant on hills
    • Install drip irrigation and modern winemaking equipment
    • Make wines with more fruit and new (French) oak
    • Make wines with less alcohol and less oxidation
  27. Who were the driving forces behind the Gratallops Project?
    Carlos Pastrana (Costers sel Siurana) brought together Alvaro Palacios (Clos l'Ermita), Mas Martinet, Rene Barbier (Clos Magador), and Clos & Terrasses.
  28. Name Spain's sparkling wine DO & the grapes
    • Cava, mostly in Medio Penedes
    • White grapes are Parallada, Xarel-lo, Macabeo
    • Black grape is Pinot Noir
  29. Name 3 DO within Castilla-Leon
    • Ribera del Duero: ribera means riverside
    • Toro: 100% Tinta de Toro (Trempranillo)
    • Rueda: aromatic whites from Verdejo (similar to SB), plus SB and Viura, most with no oak
  30. Name the most important grape(s) of Ribera del Duero
    Tinto del Pais (Tempranillo) and Bordeaux varieties
  31. Name the grape that Tinta de Toro is a synonym of
  32. State the DO of Vega Sicilia
    Ribera del Duero DO (Castilla-Leon)
  33. Name a DO within Aragon
    • Somontano
    • White grapes: Chardonnay, Viura, Alcanon, Garnacha (white)
    • Black grapes: CS, Garnacha, Tempranillo, Moristel, Parrelata
  34. Name the most important grape(s) of Rias Baixas
    Albarino (90%) makes dry crisp whites
  35. How do you pronounce Txakoli?
  36. How do you pronounce Xarel-lo?
  37. How do you pronounce Rias Baixas?
  38. Name a grape that is also a DO
  39. Name a region that is both a VdlT and a DO
  40. State the region & style of Txakoli DO (Cantabria)
    • Basque Country
    • Light and acidic
    • Whites from Hondarribi Zuri
    • Reds from Hondarribi Beltza
  41. What is Rueda DO (Castilla-Leon) known for?
    Aromatic whites from Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc, and Viura
  42. What are the 5 sub-zones of Rias Baixas DO (Galicia)?
    • Val do Salnes
    • O Rosal
    • Condado do Tea
    • Soutomaior
    • Ribeira do Ulla
  43. What is La Mancha DO (Castilla-La Mancha) known for?
    • Enormous vlume of wine
    • Whites from Airen (63%)
    • Reds from Cencibel (Tempranillo)
  44. What is considered the best DO of Castilla-La Mancha)?
    Valdepenas DO
  45. What is Malaga DO (Andalucia) known for?
    • Fortified wines similar to Sherry
    • Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez
  46. What is Montilla-Moriles DO (Andalucia) known for?
    • Fortified and Unfortified wines similar to Sherry
    • Airen, Baladi, Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez, Torrontes (more famous in Argentina)
  47. Name the DOs of Murcia
    • Yecla
    • Jumilla
    • Bullas
  48. Name the grapes and styles of Murcia
    • Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot
    • White, Rose, Red
  49. Name some top Priorat Producers
    • Finca Dofi
    • Clos l'Ermita
    • Las Terrasses
    • Clos Mogador
    • Clos Erasmus
  50. Name some top Ribera Del Duero Producers
    • Aalto
    • Abadia Retuerta
    • Alion
    • Condado de Haza
    • Dominio de Pingus
    • Emelio Moro
    • Mauro
    • Pesquera
    • Vega Sicila
  51. Name the best recent vintages for Ribera Del Duero
    1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001
  52. Name the 3 principal towns of Sherry
    • Jerez de la Frontera
    • Sanlucar de Barrameda
    • Puerto de Santa Maria
  53. Name the grapes of Sherry
    • 90% Palomino
    • PX and Moscatel are raisinated and used for sweeting and color
    • All white grapes
  54. State the character of Albariza soil
    Calcareous white soil which traps the winter water so grapes get water all summer
  55. Name the 3 soil types in Sherry
    • Albariza (primary soil type)
    • Barros
    • Arenas
  56. Describe the solera system
    • A method of fractional blending
    • Up to 1/3 of the oldest wine cask is bottled; the next oldest wine (Criadera) is used to top it up; and so forth up to the youngest wine (Anada).
    • Must have 7 years of wine before you can sell as Sherry.
    • No bottling date (yet)... the solera date is the date of the oldest wine
  57. Name the 4 main styles of Sherry
    • Fino: has flor, makes the lightest style, fortified to 15.5%
    • Manzanilla: Fino from Sanlucar de Barameda
    • Amontillado: Fino aged to develop a nutty character, usually a dry style between Fino and Oloroso
    • Oloroso: no flor, fortified to 18% and aged longer. Dry but some are sweetened and sold as Cream Sherries.
    • Palo Cortado: flor has been interrupted, a dry style between Fino and Oloroso (rare and expensive)
    • Almacenistas: a single Solera Sherry bottled unblended with other stockkeeper's wine
  58. What determines the price of Sherry
    • Aging
    • Not a big price difference between styles (except for Palo Cortado)
  59. What is the only wine in the world that some people think has a salty flavor?
    • Manzanilla
    • Chill Fino/Manzanilla, serve in a Copita Sherry glass, pair with Tapas
  60. Define Flor
    • Yeast which grows on the surface of casks with no more than 15.5% alcohol
    • It lives off the nutrients in the wine and affects its color
    • Flor prevents the wine from being overly oxidized
  61. Name the 4 official qualify levels of wines from Portual
    • Vinho de Mesa (VM): table wines
    • Vinho Regional (VR): equivalent to Vin de Pays
    • Indicacao de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR): equivalent to VDQS
    • Denominacao de Origem Controlada (DOC): approved quality wine areas
  62. Name 8 Vinho Regional (VR) wines of Portugal from north to south
    • Minho:
    • Tras os Montes:
    • Beiras:
    • Estremadura: Atlantic climate
    • Ribatejano:
    • Ribatejo: white wines of Periquita, chalk soil
    • Alantejo: includes 5 DOCs; red wines of Aragonez and Castelao Frances)
    • Terras do Sado:
    • Algarve: includes 4 DOCs, red and white wine, source of cork trees
  63. What is Colares DOC known for?
    • Ungrafted vines grown in sand
    • Ramisco grape (white)
  64. Name some Portugal labeling terms
    • Branco: white
    • Bruto: dry sparkling wine
    • Choheita: vintage
    • Engarrafado na origem: estate bottled
    • Garrafeira: reserve wine with specific alcohol and aging requirements
    • Quinta: estate
  65. Name the most important DOC of Portugal
    • Vinho Verde
    • Porto & Douro
    • Dao
    • Bairrada
    • Borba
    • Madeira
  66. Name the most important grape(s) of Vinho Verde
    • Loureiro
    • Alvarinho
    • Trajadura
    • Dry white, rose, and red wines
    • Bottled young to undergo malolactic fermentation in bottle
  67. Name the most important grapes of the Douro (now known as Duriense)
    • Touriga Nacional
    • Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
    • Tinta Barroca
  68. What are the predominant grapes of Dao DOC?
    • Touriga Nacional (red)
    • Encruzado (white)
    • Terraced vineyards on granite slopes
  69. What are the predominant grapes of Bairrada DOC?
    • Baga (red): high acid, high tannin
    • Maria Gomez (white)
    • Clay-based soils with chalk
  70. Name 6 important red Port grapes
    • Touriga Nacional
    • Touriga Francesa
    • Tinta Roriz (only name for Tempranillo in Portugal)
    • Tinta Cao
    • Tinta Baroca
    • Bastardo (in both Port and Madeira but not important for either)
  71. Name 6 important white Port grapes
    • Arinto
    • Codega
    • Malvasia Fino
    • Malvasia Corada
    • Rabigato
    • Voshino
  72. Name the cities where Port has historically been aged
    • Villa Nova de Gaia
    • Oporto
  73. Describe the difference between Vintage & Tawny Port
    • Vintage Port: sometimes called un-wooded
    • From a single great year's harvest
    • Max 2 years in barrel (though some sources say 18-30 months)
    • Very ageworthy
    • Ruby color on release & throw sediment when mature
    • Tawny Port: sometimes called wooded
    • Usually a blend of multiple vintages (except Colheita)
    • Min 6 years in barrel (7 years for Colheita)
    • Only legal labeling terms are 10, 20, 30 or 40 year (average age of wines in blend)
    • Racked 3-4 times per year entire time in barrel thus no sediment once bottled
    • Tawny color (orangish brown) on release
  74. State what is used to fortify Port
    • Aguardente: on part (neutral grape spirit at 77%) is added to four parts must
    • Finished wine has 18-20% alcohol
  75. What is a pipe?
    traditional Port cask holding 550 liters
  76. Define lagar
    a large stone trough traditionally used to tread and ferment grapes when making port or sherry
  77. Name the 4 most important grapes of Madeira
    • Sercial
    • Verdelho
    • Bual (Boal)
    • Malmsey (Malvasia, black version)
    • Also: Bastardo, Moscatel, Terrantez, Tinta Negra Mole (now called Negra Mole, the most widely planted grape)
  78. Describe the estufagem process
    • estufa: oven
    • Cooking the wines at 120 degrees F for 6-12 months
    • (every producer does it differently)
    • Sugars are caramelized and the wine becomes completely oxidized
  79. Define Rainwater Madeira
    A light dry blended Madeira
  80. What is a Venencia?
    • A rod with a metal hook on one end and a cylindrical container on the other.
    • The cylindrical shape allows you to extract wine below flor in a barrel.
    • The skilled user is called a Venenciador.
    • It is used in Andalusia, Spain.
  81. How does climate affect wine?
    • Cool climates result in High Acid and Low Alcohol
    • Hot climates result in Low Acid and High Alcohol
  82. How much time in oak do ports have?
    • Ruby or Vintage Character: no oak
    • Vintage or Quinta: max 2 years; age vintage 20-30 years, age quinta 10 years
    • LBV: 4 to 6 years
    • Tawny: min 6 years; medium sweet
    • Colheita: min 7 years
  83. Describe Madeira
    • Dry to sweet
    • High acidity and alcohol
    • Different grapes than Port
  84. Describe Madeira Varietals & Styles
    • Secial/Verdelho: Dry, served chilled as apertifs; alcohol added after fermentation (like Sherry)
    • Bual/Malmsey: Sweet, served with dessert or cheese; fermentation stopped by addition of spirit (like Port)
    • Malmsey is the richest style
  85. What does the age indication on a Madeira label represent?
    The youngest component in the blend
  86. Contrast Vintage Madeira and Vintage Port
    • Vintage Madeira is aged a min of 20 years in wood and 2 years in bottle before release
    • Vintage Port is aged a max of 2 years
  87. Contrast Colheita Madeira and Colheita Port
    Both are aged a min. of 7 years from a single vintage
  88. How did Port originate?
    • Abbey at Lamego: practice of fortifying must during fermentation
    • Marquis de Pombal: tightened rules; ordered boundary to be marked by granite posts (Pombal stones)
    • Pombal decreed all port must be fortified with aguardente bought from Portugese government; now, it can come from anywhere but must be tested at Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto (IVDP)
  89. Describe Ruby Ports (British palate)
    • Vintage Port: aged 18-30 months in cask; vintages must be approved by IVP
    • Single Quinta Port: Vintage Port from a single vineyard
    • Late Bottled-Vintage Port (LBV): aged 4-6 years in cask; vintage and bottling years on label; filtered (modern, no decanting) and unfiltered (traditional, improve with age)
    • Vintage Character Port/Ruby Port: Sweet, strong, and red; aged in bulk for 2-3 years; blended for consistency from multiple vineeyards and vintages
  90. Describe Tawny Ports (Portuguese palate)
    • House Tawny: inexpensive blends of white and red wines
    • Aged Tawny: aged min 6 years in cask; average age of blend must be 10, 20, 30, or 40 years
    • Coheita: aged min 7 years cask from a single vintage
    • Tawny is racked 3 times a year while it is in barrel.
    • Most tawny is wooded but some is not.
  91. Who declares the Port vintage?
    Each producer declares their own vintage, potentially for a single vineyard
  92. What are Barco Rebelhos?
    Boats once used to transport wine fermented at the source down the Douro river to Oporto where it was aged, blended, and bottled. These boats now are only used as restaurants for tourists.
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Spain and Portugal.txt