AP Euro Hist Identifications CH. 12

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  1. Renaissance
    • A time period between 1350 and 1550 which was considered as
    • a rebirth of antiquity or Greco-Roman civilization and began in Italy than
    • spread north. This new age followed the Middle Ages, which was characterized by
    • darkness, lacking Classical culture. This era brought with it improvements in
    • education, health, science, art, morals, and emphasized the importance of
    • religion. The people of the Renaissance pushed the limit of what was possible,
    • inventing many things and conceiving several ideas that would ultimately change
    • how humans view the world. Importance:
    • The Renaissance altered many views of the world for the better and helped
    • advance human technology, artwork, and interactions.
  2. Jacob Burckhardt
    • He wrote The
    • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, and in it, portrayed the 14th
    • and 15th centuries as a new distinct age that revived the ancient
    • worlds of Greece and Rome, glorified the individual, and secularized the
    • Italian world. Burckhardt believed this was the beginning of modern world but
    • failed to show the continuing importance of religion. Importance: Burckhardt is responsible for the belief that the
    • Renaissance is considered a distinct period in European history that started in
    • Italy and then spread north.
  3. Leon Battista Alberti
    • He
    • was a fifteenth-century Florentine architect who once said, “Men can do all
    • things if they will.” This statement inspired high regard for human dignity and
    • worth and a realization of individual potentiality, which created a new social
    • ideal of the well-rounded person (l’uomo universale). Importance: Leon Battista Alberti revived emphasis on individual
    • ability.
  4. Hanseatic League
    • The Hanseatic League, also known as the Hansa, was formed as
    • early as the thirteenth century by a number of North German towns. It was a
    • commercial and military association. By 1500 the League had more than eighty
    • cities across England and northern Europe, including Denmark, Norway, and
    • Sweden. For almost two hundred years the Hansa controlled almost all of
    • northern European trades, such as timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and
    • wines. In the fifteenth century, the Hansa lost control over the trade market
    • and was unable to compete with the developing larger territorial states. Importance: The Hanseatic League had
    • control over most trade in Europe for almost two centuries.
  5. House of Medici
    • It was the greatest fifteenth-century bank in Europe. The
    • family began with cloth production then expanded into commerce, real estate,
    • and banking and controlled ports of industrial enterprises. Importance: It was thanks to the Medici family and the House of Medici
    • that Florence regained power in banking during the fifteenth century.
  6. Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier
    • This book best expressed certain ideals that came to be
    • expected of the aristocrat by 1500. It was first published in 1528, soon became
    • popular throughout Europe and remained a fundamental handbook for European
    • aristocrats for centuries. Castiglione described the three basic attributes of
    • the perfect courtier, including certain achievements, character, fighting
    • ability, a Classical education, a talent in the arts, and were expected to
    • follow a certain standard of conduct. Importance:
    • Book of the Courtier taught the
    • standards of being an aristocrat in Europe for centuries to come.
  7. Condottieri
    • Were leaders of mercenary soldiers who sold their services
    • to the highest bidder. City-states came to rely on them to fight most of their
    • battles. When not engaged in battle, the condottieri wreaked havoc on the
    • countryside, living by blackmail and looting. Importance: The condottieri allowed the city-states and regional states
    • to continue to fight without forming armies of their own.
  8. Francesco Sforza
    • He was a condottieri who turned on his Milanese employers,
    • conquered the city, and became its new duke. He worked to create a highly
    • centralized territorial state. He also made a system of taxation that generated
    • enormous revenues for the government. Importance:
    • Showed that the condottieri were more powerful than expected and capable of
    • overthrowing their employers.
  9. Cosimo de’Medici
    • He took control of the republic of Florence in 1434.
    • Although his family upheld the republican forms of government for appearances’
    • sake, it ran the government from behind the scenes. Cosimo, and later his
    • grandson Lorenzo the Magnificent, dominated the city at a time when Florence
    • was the center of the cultural Renaissance. Importance: He and his family controlled one of the most influential
    • cities of Italy during the Renaissance.
  10. The Papal States
    • They were lands that were only nominally under the political
    • control of the popes. Avignon and the Great Schism had enabled individual
    • cities and territories, such as Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara, to become
    • independent. The Renaissance popes of the fifteenth century used much of their
    • power to try to reestablish their control over the Papal States. Importance: The Papal States showed that
    • it was possible to break free from oppressive rulers.
  11. Isabella d’Este
    • She was perhaps the most famous of the Renaissance ruling
    • women and was the daughter of the duke of Ferrara. Isabella was educated at the
    • brilliant court of Ferrara, which was another important center of art and
    • learning in the Renaissance, and was known for her intelligence and political
    • wisdom. She attracted artists and intellectuals from all around Europe and was
    • responsible for amassing one of the finest libraries in all of Italy. She
    • effectively ruled Mantua and won a reputation as a clever negotiator. Importance: Isabella was a very important
    • influence during the Renaissance and was a significant woman leader.
  12. Peace of Lodi and balance
    of power
    • The concept of a balance of power was designed to prevent
    • the aggrandizement of any one state at the expense of the others. After 1545,
    • when the Italian states signed the Peace of Lodi (ending almost a half-century
    • of war and inaugurating a relatively peaceful forty-year era in Italy), is when
    • this concept became especially relevant. Importance:
    • The Peace of Lodi ended a long lasting war and balance of power was a concept
    • that caused peace itself.
  13. 1527 sack of Rome
    • The sacking of Rome by the armies of the Spanish caused king
    • Charles I to bring a temporary end to the Italian wars. Although it was on
    • Italian ground, Rome was simply a convenient arena for two great powers (Spain
    • and France) to fight battles. Importance:
    • After the 1527 sack of Rome, the Spaniards dominated Italy.
  14. Machiavelli’s The Prince
    • Is one of the most famous and most widely read Western
    • treatises on politics. It described the acquisition and expansion of political
    • power as the means to restore and maintain order in his time. It also showed
    • how a ruler ought to behave based on Christian moral principles. Importance: The Prince gives concrete expression to the Renaissance
    • preoccupation with political power.
  15. Civic Humanism
    • Humanism was an intellectual movement base on the study of
    • the Classical literary works of Greece and Rome. It focused on the studies of
    • humanity, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history,
    • all based on the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors. In civic humanism
    • however, intellectuals began o take a new view of their role as intellectuals.
    • This movement began in Florence in the fifteenth century. It became the ideal
    • that it was the duty of an intellectual to live n active life for one’s state.
    • Civic humanism reflected the values of the urban society of their study of the
    • Italian Renaissance. Importance: Civic
    • humanism changed the way intellectuals acted and altered what they studied.
  16. Petrarch
    • He has often been called the father of Italian Renaissance
    • humanism. Petrarch refused to become a lawyer and took up a literary career
    • instead. He did more than any other individual in the fourteenth century to
    • foster the development of Renaissance humanism. He was the first intellectual
    • to characterize the Middle Ages as a period of darkness. He emphasized the
    • humanists to use pure Classical Latin. Importance:
    • Petrarch was one of the most instrumental intellectuals in the beginning of
    • Renaissance humanism.
  17. Leonardo Bruni’s The
    New Cicero
    • Was a biography on Cicero enthusiastic about the fusion of
    • political action and literary creation in Cicero’s life. Cicero served as the
    • inspiration for the Renaissance ideal that it was the duty of an intellectual
    • to live an active life for one’s state because of this book. Importance: Influenced the lives of
    • intellectuals.
  18. Lorenzo Valla
    • He was brought up in Rome and educated in both Latin and
    • Greek. He eventually achieved his chief ambition of becoming a papal secretary.
    • His major work, The Elegances of the
    • Latin Language, was an effort to purify medieval Latin and restore Latin to
    • its proper position over the vernacular. The treatise examined the proper use
    • of Classical Latin and created a new literary standard. Valla identified
    • different stages in the development of the Latin language and accepted only the
    • Latin of the last century of the Roman Republic and the first century of the
    • empire. Importance: Valla played a
    • strong role in the study of the Latin language.
  19. Marsilio Ficino and neoplatonism
    • Marsilio was a man who was a leader of the Florentine
    • Platonic Academy. He dedicated his life to the translation of Plato and the
    • exposition of the Platonic philosophy known as Neoplatonism. Neoplatonism
    • postulated the idea of a hierarchy of substances, or great chain of being, from
    • the lowest form of physical matter (plants) to the purest spirit (God), in
    • which humans occupied a central or middle position. They were a link between
    • the physical world and the material world. Importance:
    • Ficino shaped the understanding of meaning of humans through neoplatonism.
  20. Renaissance hermeticism
    • It was another product of the Florentine intellectual
    • environment of the late fifteenth century. The Hermetic manuscripts contained
    • two kinds of writing. One stressing the occult sciences with an emphasis on
    • astrology, alchemy, and magic. The other focused on theological and philosophical
    • beliefs and speculations. Importance:
    • Hermeticism also shaped the way humans thought of the world.
  21. Pico della Mirandola’s Oration
    • It was one of the most famous pieces of writing of the
    • Renaissance. In it, Pico offered a ringing statement of unlimited human
    • potential: “To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he
    • wills.” In Oration, Mirandola
    • condenses the work of many philosophers of different backgrounds and condenses
    • them into “nuggets of universal truth.” Importance:
    • Oration provided Europe with a single
    • place for all excepted ideas to reside in.
  22. “liberal studies”
    • It was the core of the academic training that Vittorino
    • offered. The Renaissance view of the value of the liberal arts was most
    • strongly influenced by a treatise on education called Concerning Character, which stressed the importance of liberal
    • studies as the key to true freedom, enabling individuals to reach their full
    • potential. They included history, moral philosophy, eloquence, grammar and
    • logic, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music. Its purpose was to produce
    • individuals who followed a path of virtue and wisdom. Importance: Liberal studies educated many in aspects of wisdom that
    • allowed them a better path in life.
  23. Francesco Guicciardini
    • He has been called by some Renaissance scholars the greatest
    • historian between the first century and the eighteenth century. Through his
    • works he represented the beginning of “modern analytical historiography.” He
    • felt that the purpose of writing history was to teach lessons. His works relied
    • heavily on personal examples and documentary sources. Importance: Guicciardini was able to analyze important political
    • situations precisely and critically, explaining their history in a way that
    • made much more sense.
  24. Johannes Gutenberg
    • He
    • played an important role in bringing the development of printing from movable
    • type to completion. Gutenberg’s Bible, completed in 1455 or 1456, was the first
    • true book in the West produced from movable type. Importance: Gutenberg helped make printing from movable type possible.
  25. Masaccio
    • He was a famous artist who had taken up the challenge of
    • imitating nature which had not been attempted in some time. His cycle of
    • frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel has long been regarded as the first masterpiece
    • of Early Renaissance art. He created a new realistic style of art through his
    • various different strategies for portraying nature. Importance: Masaccio created a new version of art that was more
    • realistic and true to nature for many other artists to follow.
  26. Lorenzo the Magnificent
    • Was a circle of artists that added a new sense of invention
    • in Florence. One of the group’s prominent members, Sandro Botticelli, had an
    • interest in Greek and Roman mythology and painted Primavera (Spring) along with
    • other famous works. Importance: Lorenzo
    • the Magnificent helped aid the surge of new inventions.
  27. Botticelli’s Primavera
    • This is one of his most famous paintings set in the garden
    • of Venus, the garden of eternal spring. Importance:
    • His painting possessed out-of-this-world qualities far from realism that
    • characterized the painting of the Early Renaissance.
  28. Donatello’s David
    • David was the first life-size, freestanding bronze nude in
    • European art and may have celebrated Florentine heroism. It radiated strength
    • that reflected the dignity of humanity. Importance:
    • David is a great example of the Renaissance advances in sculpture and the
    • simplicity that should be present in humanity.
  29. Brunelleschi’s dome
    • The dome Brunelleschi created was a challenge. Instructed to
    • build a dome for the unfinished cathedral of Florence, Brunelleschi used new
    • techniques and machinery to create a 140-foot opening dome. Importance: This architectural creation was
    • born from the inspirations of Roman antiquity and is a historical triumph of that
    • time period.
  30. High Renaissance
    • This is the final stage of Renaissance art, which flourished
    • between 1480 and 1520 and was dominated by the work of Leonardo da Vinci,
    • Raphael, and Michelangelo. The increasing importance of Rome as a new cultural
    • center of the Italian Renaissance marked the shift to the High Renaissance. Importance: At this point in the
    • Renaissance, artists were ready to move into individualistic forms of creative
    • expression. There was a preoccupation with the idealization of nature and
    • portraying scenes exactly.
  31. Leonardo da Vinci
    • He was a brilliant artist who stressed the need to advance
    • beyond realism and carried on fifteenth century experimental tradition. Importance: Leonardo da Vinci was a
    • transitional figure in the shift to High Renaissance principles. He triggered
    • many of the shifts that occurred in the art of High Renaissance.
  32. Raphael
    • He was regarded as one of Italy’s best painters of the time
    • period. Importance: His paintings were
    • acclaimed for achieving an ideal of beauty far surpassing human standards. Some
    • even revealed the underlying principles of the art in the classical world of
    • Greece and Rome.
  33. Michelangelo
    • He was an accomplished painter, sculptor, and architect of
    • the High Renaissance. He created masterpieces such as David, a masterpiece that
    • proclaimed the beauty and glory of human beings. Importance: Michelangelo created art that truly manifested human beauty
    • through his remarkable number of projects.
  34. Sistine Chapel’s David
    • Michelangelo’s David was cut fro an eighteen foot high piece
    • of marble and completed in 1504. It was the largest sculpture in Italy since
    • the time of Rome. Importance: David
    • celebrates the beauty of the human body and serves as a remarkable symbol of
    • the glory of human power.
  35. Bramante and Saint Peter’s
    • Bramante was an architect who designed a small temple that
    • encompassed the architectural ideas of the High Renaissance. This achievement
    • led Pope Julius II to commission him to design what eventually became St.
    • Peter’s. Importance: Bramante recaptured
    • the grandeur of Ancient Rome with his design. His creations are accomplishments
    • of High Renaissance architecture.
  36. Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of
    • Vasari was an avid admirer of Italy’s great artists and
    • wrote a series of brief biographies about them. Lives of Artists was his book
    • of such biographies. Importance:
    • Vasari’s accounts further demonstrated the pedestal upon which Renaissance
    • artists stood. He was one of many that view artists as creative geniuses with
    • God-given, divine qualities.
  37. Northern Renaissance
    • The art of the Northern Renaissance featured the same wish
    • to portray the world as exactly as possible. The human form became a primary
    • vehicle of expression and northern artists became masters of detail. Importance: Northern Renaissance artists
    • depicted accurate visuals through precise details while placing great emphasis
    • on emotional intensity. These style influenced art to come.
  38. Jan van Eyck
    • Another artist of the Northern Renaissance, van Eyck was the
    • first to use oil paint and possessed great attention to detail. His most famous
    • piece is Giovanni Arnolfini & his Bride. Importance: Jan van Eyck’s art portrays the style of the Northern Renaissance
    • with his precise detail and uncertain understanding of perception, a trait that
    • was common throughout the time period.
  39. Albrecht Durer
    • He was an artist who observed the art in Italy and wrote
    • detailed treaties on both High Renaissance and Northern Renaissance art. He
    • integrated both styles into his own art. Importance:
    • By combining attention to detail and mastery of perception, Durer was able to
    • achieve a standard of ideal beauty by a careful examination of the human form.
  40. Madrigals
    • They were poems set to music used in the Mass and the chief
    • form of secular music in Italy and France. Importance:
    • Madrigals used text painting that helped portray the literal meaning of the
    • text and spread all throughout Europe.
  41. “New Monarchies”
    • This is how the governments of France, England, and Spain
    • were described at the end of the fifteenth century. Rulers established a
    • centralized royal authority. Importance:
    • Western Europe succeeded more than Eastern Europe when it came to the
    • organization of monarchies.
  42. Louis XI the Spider and Henry VII
    • Louis XI, known as the Spider because of his devious ways,
    • greatly advanced the development of French territorial states. He retained the
    • taille, but could not successfully repress French nobility. Henry VII
    • established a strong monarchial government by controlling the noble’s
    • irresponsible activity and being extremely intelligent when it came to
    • extracting money. Importance: Louis XI
    • is believed to have created a base for the later development of a strong French
    • monarchy. Henry VII was a very smart ruler who left England with a stable and
    • prosperous government and an enhanced status.
  43. Ferdinand and Isabella
    • Both people ruled the two strongest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon
    • and Castile. When they married, they maintained separated kingdoms, but worked
    • together to create a strong Spanish army, control the Catholic Church, expel
    • 150,000 out of 200,000 Jews, and achieve their goal of absolute religious
    • orthodoxy (Catholicism). Importance:
    • Their union laid the foundation for the unification of Spain and its rise as a
    • major European power. They instituted military and bureaucratic reforms and
    • forced Jews and Muslims out of their domain.
  44. Spanish Inquisition
    • It was decreed in 1478 to guarantee the orthodoxy of
    • Catholic converts but had no authority over practicing Jews. This was done
    • because some Jews were going from Catholicism back to Judaism. It worked with
    • cruel efficiency and led to the expulsion of 75% of the Jews from Spain. Importance: The Spanish Inquisition
    • enforced a uniform policy that to be Spanish was to be Catholic, and led to
    • Spain becoming the staunch pillar of the Catholic Church during the Reformation
    • Era.
  45. The Habsburgs
    • They were one of the wealthiest landowners in the Holy Roman
    • Empire who were successful due to a well-executed policy of dynastic marriages.
    • Importance: When the Holy Roman Empire
    • was still possessed by Habsburgs in 1438, it began to play an important role in
    • European affairs. Their marriages made the dynasty an international power and
    • brought the opposition of the French monarchy.
  46. Ivan III
    • He was a great prince, under which a new Russian state,
    • called the principality of Moscow, was born. Importance: Ivan III annexed other Russian principalities and took
    • advantage of the dissension between the Mongols, throwing them off by 1480 and
    • creating the new Russian state.
  47. Constantinople and 1453
    • Constantinople was a place of battle for hundreds of years.
    • Many empires fought to posses it seeing as it was a place of intellectual and
    • social development. 1453 completed the demise of the Byzantine Empire. Importance: Constantinople was the cause of
    • destruction for many empires, and in the year of 1453 it caused the decimation
    • of the Byzantine Empire.
  48. John Wyclif and John Hus
    • Wyclif had a disgust with clerical corruption that led him
    • to make a far-ranging attack on papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs
    • and practices. Hus urged the elimination of the worldliness and corruption of
    • the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic
    • Church. Importance: Both Wyclif and Hus
    • stood up to the clergy and led movements of citizens against its corrupt ways.
  49. Pius II Execrabilis
    • Pope Pius II’s Excecrabilis condemned appeals to a council
    • over the head of a pope as heretical. Importance:
    • Execrabilis caused popes to no longer have any possibility of asserting
    • supremacy over temporal governments as the medieval papacy had.
  50. Renaissance Popes
    • The popes of the Renaissance began with those from the end
    • of the Great Schism (1417) to the beginnings of the Reformation in the early
    • sixteenth century. They were great patrons of Renaissance culture, and their
    • efforts made Rome a cultural leader at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Importance: The Renaissance Popes helped in
    • the reformation of the church itself along with leading a continent as
    • spiritual and cultural leaders.
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AP Euro Hist Identifications CH. 12
review of ch. 12 important people places and things
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