Human Anatomy

  1. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  2. Peripheral Nervous System
    Cranial nerves, Spinal nerves, and Ganglia
  3. Afferent
    • (Sense of an affect)
    • Sensory output
    • Unipolar (Pseudopolar)
  4. Efferent
    • (Cause an effect)
    • Motor Output
    • Multipolar
  5. What are the two types of nerve fibers of the nerve cell or neuron?
    Dendrites and axons
  6. In the CNS, cell bodies are hosted in the ______ matter
  7. Fibers travel through the CNS through the _____ matter
  8. Ganglia
    A collection of cell bodies outside of the CNS
  9. Somatic
    Skeletal muscle, Skin, and bones
  10. Visceral
    Viscera (organs)
  11. 4 Major Neuron Types (Below the Head and Neck)
    • 1) General Somatic Afferent (GSA)
    • 2) General Somatic Efferent (GSE)
    • 3) General Visceral Afferent (GVA)
    • 4) General Visceral Efferent (GVE)
  12. Proprioception is used by what type of neuron?
    General Somatic Afferent (GSA)
  13. General Sensory Afferent
    • Sensory information coming in from skeletal muscle, bone and skin.
    • Proprioception is used by GSA while sensing where the part of body is.
  14. How many pairs of nerves are held in each section?
    • Cervical = 8 pairs
    • Thoracic = 12 pairs
    • Lumbar = 5 pairs
    • Sacral = 5 pairs
    • Coccygeal = 1 pair
    • Total = Usually 31 pairs
  15. Cervical Nerves
    • 8 pairs
    • 1st 7 pairs exit above its associated vertebrae
    • C8 nerve exits below the C8 vertebrae
  16. Dorsal Rami
    Innervate the skin of back and intrinsic muscles of back
  17. Ventral Rami
    Innervate everything else that Dorsal rami don't cover (skin or back and intrinsic muscles)
  18. What is the routes taken for output and input?
    • Dorsal Roots only house sensory input
    • Ventral roots only house motor output
    • Rami house both sensor and motor
    • Sensory input goes from rami (dorsal or ventral) to the dorsal roots and (through the front door) into the spinal cord. The motor output leaves the spinal cord through (the front door) the ventral roots and into the rami (dorsal or ventral)
  19. What roots house GSA?
    The Dorsal Root
  20. What roots house GSE?
    The Ventral Root
  21. Where are the cell bodies of the GSE located?
    In the Ventral Horn
  22. Where are the cell bodies of the GSA located?
    In the Dorsal Root Ganglion
  23. What is an Anastomoses?
    Communication between blood vessels of the same type
  24. What are the 3 main arteries of the back region?
    Suprascapular, Subscapular, Dorsal Scapular
  25. What are 2 signs of an Axillary nerve lesion?
    • 1) Patient presents difficulty with abducting shoulder to horizontal
    • 2) Patient has numbness in skin around shoulder
  26. What is the most common motion that causes Rotator Cuff Muscle injuries?
    Overhead throwing motion
  27. The instrinsic back muscles are innervated by:
    The dorsal nerve rami
  28. Blood supply to the intrinsic back muscles comes from:
    Dorsal Branch Intercostal Arteries
  29. What are considered the Intinsic Back Muscles?
    • (Deep back muscles)
    • Splenius Capitis
    • Splenius Cervicus
    • Iliocostalis
    • Longissimus
    • Spinalis
    • Semispinalis
    • Multifidis
    • Rotares (brevis and longus)
  30. What are the functions of the Posterior Serratus Muscles?
    Muscles of inspiration and expiration
  31. Excess Lordosis Occurs from what 3 things?
    • Overdeveloped abdominal muscles
    • Obesity
    • Pregnancy
  32. What vertebrae does not have a vertrebral body?
  33. What joint allows rotation of the neck?
    Atlanto-occipital joint
  34. What joint allows flexion and extension of the neck?
    Atlanto-occipital joint
  35. What ligaments keep the head from excessive rotation?
    Alar ligaments
  36. What are the 3 main branches of the scapular blood vessels?
    • Suprascapula
    • Dorsal Scapular (A.K.A. Deep branch of the Transverse Cervical)
    • Subscapular
  37. What muscle does the Superficial Cervical provide blood supply to?
  38. Where does the Trapezius muscle get its blood supply from?
    Superficial Cervical
  39. What does the Thoracodorsal artery provide blood to?
    Latissimus Dorsi
  40. What artery does the Latissimus get its blood supply from?
  41. What muscles do the Dorsal Scapular provide blood to?
  42. What muscles do the Suprascapular artery provide blood to?
    Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus
  43. What artery does the Infraspinatus get its blood supply from?
    The Suprascapular
  44. What artery does the Supraspinatus get its blood supply from?
  45. What artery does the Rhomboids get its supply from?
    Dorsal Scapular
  46. The Suprascapular nerve runs above what ligament?
    Superior Transvers Scapular Ligament
  47. What landmarks make up the borders of the Triangular Space?
    • Superior - Teres Minor
    • Lateral Border - Tendon of the Longhead of the Triceps Brachii
    • Inferior Border - Teres Major
  48. What is found running through the Triangular Space?
    The Circumflex Scapular Artery
  49. The Circumflex Scapular Artery is found running through what group of muscles?
    The Triangular Space (Teres Minor, Teres Major, Tendon of Triceps)
  50. What landmarks make up the Quadrangular Space?
    • Superior Border - Teres Minor
    • Lateral Border - Surgical Neck of the Humerus
    • Medial Border - Long head of the Triceps Brachii
    • Inferior Border - Teres Major
  51. What is found running through the Quadrangular Space?
    Axillary Nerve and Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery
  52. What space is the Axillary Nerve found running through?
    Quadrangular Space
  53. What space is the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery found running through?
    The Quadrangular Space
  54. What landmarks make up the Suboccipital Triangle?
    • Inferior Border - Obliquus Capitis Inferior
    • Lateral Border - Obliquus Capitis Superior
    • Superior Border - Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
  55. What is found running through the Suboccipital Triangle?
    Suboccipital Nerve and the Vertebral Artery
  56. What space is the Suboccipital nerve found running through?
    Suboccipital Triangle
  57. What space is the Vertebral artery found running through?
    Suboccipital Triangle
  58. What innervates the Latissimus Dorsi?
    Thoracodoral Nerve (C6, C7, C8)
  59. What innervates the Rhomboids?
    Dorsal Scapular nerve (C4, C5)
  60. What innervates the Suprapinatus?
    Suprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
  61. What innervates the Infraspinatus?
    Suprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
  62. What innervates the Trapezius?
    Spinal Accessory nerve (CN XI) and C3,C4 for sensory and proprioception
  63. What innervates the Teres Minor?
    Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
  64. What innervates the Deltoid?
    Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
  65. What innervates the Teres Major?
    Lower Subscapular nerve (C6)
  66. What innervates the Subscapularis?
    Lower Subscapular nerve (C6)
  67. Nuchal Ligament
    Span from the External Occipital Protuberance to the spinous processes of the Cervical vertebrae (C7)
  68. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
    Connects the anterolateral aspects of the vertebral bodies from the pelvic surface of the sacrum to the anterior tubercle of C1 and to the Occipital bone.
  69. Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
    Runs within vertebral canal along the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies from the sacrum to C2
  70. Ligamentum Flavum
    Runs from Lamina to Lamina in lumbar, thoracic, and cervical regions
  71. Intertransverse Ligament
    Connects the transverse processes in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions
  72. Interspinous Ligaments
    Connects adjoining spinous processes attaching from the root to the apex of each process. Runs from C7 to the sacrum.
  73. Supraspinous Ligaments
    Attach at the tips of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum
  74. Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament
    Crosses the Scapular notch from the coracoid process to the superior border of the scapula
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Human Anatomy
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