1. Budding yeast froms with thick capsules, red on mucicarmine stain in BAL
    Red budding yeast with peripheral clearings or "halos" stained with India ink on CSF
    Latex agglutination
    Cryptococcus neoformans - meningitis and pneumonia in immunocompromised, HIV

    • Rarely cutaneous mycosis with papules, pustules, nodules & ulcers
    • Pneumonia is granulomatous not interstitial
  2. Oral thrush associated with DM, immunosuppression, antibiotic and steroid treatment
  3. Waterhouse-friderichsen sydnrome with adrenal gland destruction, DIC and shock is a complication of?
    N. meningitidis
  4. Most common cause of UTI?
    • #1. E. coli
    • Also, S. saprophyticus, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella
  5. Most common cause of community acquired lobar pneumonia?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  6. Most common cause of meningitis in adults?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  7. Most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children?
  8. Most common cause of infectious diarrhea in adults?
    Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli
  9. Acute endocarditis is most commonly caused by?
    S. aureus
  10. Subacute bacterial endocarditis is most commonly caused by?
    S. viridans
  11. What is a complication of a Group A stretococcal skin infection?
    Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
  12. What is a complication of S. aureus skin infection?
    bacteremia and acute endocarditis
  13. Most common cause of viral aseptic meningitis:
    • Enteroviruses - fecal/oral route
    • Examples: coxsackieviruses, echoviruses and polioviruses
  14. They produce insoluble extracellular polysaccharides (dextrans) using sucrose as a substrate and cause dental caries that can lead to endocarditis, deep wound infections, abdominal abscesses and septicemia
    Viridans streptococci (S. mutans, S. sanguis)
  15. Anterior uveitis
    • Herpes viruses
    • syphilis
    • Lyme disease
    • HLA-B27 related disease
    • sarcoid
  16. Migratory polyarthritis
    rheumatic fever
  17. hot tub folliculitis
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  18. Gram-negative, oxidase positive, non-lacotose fermenting, motile rods that produce pigment
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  19. Cysteine-tellurite agar
    C. diphtheriae - black colonies
  20. Loffler's medium
    C. diphtheriae
  21. MacConkey agar
    enteric bacteria (restricts gram positive, so mostly gram negatives)
  22. Thayer-Martin VCN
    • Neisseria
    • yeast
  23. Blood agar containing bile and hypertonic saline
    Enterococci - E. faecalis, E. faecium
  24. Blood agar containing bile
    nonenterococal Group D streptococci - S bovis, S. equinus
  25. Coxsackie A, Echovirus, Poliovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatitis A virus are all part of which family?
    • Picornaviruses - small RNA-containing viruses
    • Mostly acid stable, other than Rhinovirus
  26. Dysuria and hematuria in children in daycare centers
    Adenovirus - acute hemorrhagic cystitis
  27. Parotitis, orchitis, and (rarely) aseptic meningitis
  28. Global cause of infantile gastroenterisis
  29. Acute diarrheal illnss during the winter months in US
  30. Epidemics of viral gastroenteritis worldwide
    Norwalk virus
  31. Aplastic crisis in patient swith chronic hemolytic disorders
    Parvovirus B19
  32. Hydrops fetalis
    Parvovirus B19
  33. Swollen, cherry-red epiglottis
    H. influenzae
  34. Lecithinase, phospholipase C or alpha toxin is found in
    C. perfringens - membrane destruction, cell death and widespread necrosis and hemolysis
  35. Common cuase of urinary tract infections in patiens with indwelling bladder catheters
  36. Enveloped double-stranded DNA virus
  37. Escalating fever with initial diarrhea or constipation followed by hepatosplenomegaly, the formation of "rose spots" on the abdomen, and possible homorrhagic enteritis with bowel perforation are all characteristic of:
    Salmonella typhi - typhoid fever
  38. Very high fever in a smoker accompanied by diarrhea, confusion, cough causing chest pain
    Legionella pneumophila - gram negative rod, also has hyponatremia
  39. Working with wool is an important risk factor for:
    B. anthrax
  40. Antiphagocytic D-gluatmate capsule
    B. anthracis
  41. Protein A
    S. aureus
  42. Intracellular polyphosphate granules
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  43. Peritrichous flagella
    Proteus mirabilis
  44. Bacillary angiomatosis - red-purple papular skin lesions
    Bartonella henselae - cat scratch fever
  45. toxic shock syndrome:fever, vomiting, diarrhea, desquamation, hypotensions
    S. aureus
  46. Hemolytic uremic syndrome
    E. coli O157:H7
  47. malignant otitis externa
    P. aeruginosa
  48. Reiter's syndrome: urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
    • Chlamydia
    • Shigella
    • salmonella
    • Yersinia
    • campylobacter infections
  49. condylomata acuminata
    Genital warts
  50. Non-enveloped single-stranded DNA virus
    Parvovirus B19
  51. Cryptococcus neoformans - treat with?
    Amphotericin B
  52. S. epidermidis - treat with:
  53. Pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is first line treatment for:
  54. Most common pathogen causing cystitis and acute pyelonephritis
    E. coli
  55. acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children
    s. aureus
  56. motile Gram-negative rods in colonies that have a "metallic" sheen on eosin methylene Blue agar and demonstrate hemolysis on blood agar
    E. coli
  57. virulence factor for UTI E. Coli
    fimbrial antigen
  58. virulence factor of neonatal meningitis E. Coli
    K-1 capsular antigens
  59. virulenc efactor for enterotoxigenic E. coli
    heat stable or heat lible enterotoxins
  60. What factor causes activation of macrophages which leads to widespread relase of IL-1 and TNF alpha?
    Lipid A
  61. Sporothrix, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, and Blastomyces are all:
    dimorphic fungi - molds at 25-30, and yeast at body temperature
  62. budding yeast with pseudohyphae
  63. cutaneous mycosis with hypopigmented skin patches that produces short hyphae and spores (spaghetti and meatballs) with KOH preparation
    Malassezia furfur
  64. Board non-septate hyphae in paranasal infection of DKA patients
    • Rhizopus
    • Mucor
    • Absidia
  65. Septate hyphae that form V branches
    Asperigillus fumigatus
  66. garden prick with round or cigar-shaped budding yeasts
    Sporothrix schenchkii
  67. doubly reflective wall with thick-walled spherules filled with endospores
  68. branching hyphae with oval yeast cells within macrophages
    Histoplama capsulatum
  69. branching hyphae with large round yeasts with single broad-based bud
    Blastomyces dermatitidis
  70. transient recurrent pulmonary infiltrates and eventual proximal bronchiectasis
    Aspergillus fumigatus
  71. erythema chronicum migrans
    Lyme disease - borrelia burgdorferi
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