Psych Chapter 7

  1. Memory
    The retention of information
  2. Free Recall
    To produce a response as you do on essay tests or short answer tests
  3. Cued Recall
    When you receive significant hints about the material

    Ex: Initials of the author
  4. Recognition
    Choosing the correct item among several operations

    Ex: Multiple Choice Tests
  5. Savings Method (Relearning Method)
    Detects weak memories by comparing the speed of original learning to the speed of relearning

    Ex: When you learn something, it is shorter than learning it for the first time
  6. Retrieval
    We remember the gist and reconstruct the details

    Ex: telling a joke, what must have happened (fill in details)
  7. Flashbulb Memory
    Proposed special type of long-term memory. Supposed to be hyper-accurate, but research shows that it decays over time. Vivid and you have confidence in it.

    Ex: Remembering where you were when 9/11 happened
  8. Explicit Memory
    Also called declarative memory because it is stuff that you can consciously access or say outloud
  9. Implicit Memory (Indirect Memory)
    Things you cannot say out loud or access consciously (riding a bike)
  10. Primes
    Reading or hearing a word increases the chance you will use it yourself, even if you are not aware of the influence
  11. Procedural Memories
    Memories of how to do something

    (Walking or eating with chopsticks)
  12. Declarative Memories
    Memories we can readily state in words
  13. Information Processing Model
    Compares human memory to that of a computer; information that enters the system is processed, coded, and stored
  14. Semantic Memory (Long-term memory)
    Memory of principles and facts

    Ex: Nearly everything you learned in school
  15. Episodic Memory
    Memory for specific events in your life

    Ex: Prom, wedding, funeral
  16. Short-term memory
    Temporary storage of recent events

    Also known as working memory. Limit duration, roughly 30 seconds. 4-5 items max capacity
  17. Implicit Memory
  18. Long-term memory
    A relatively permanent store. Divided into implicit/explicit memory
  19. Source amnesia
    Forgetting where or how you learned something
  20. Chunking
    Grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters

    Ex: 3-9-3-4-5-6-1 393-4561
  21. Consolidate (Theory)
    Converting a short-term memory into a long-term memory

    Problem: How long the information remains in short-term memory is a poor predictor of how it becomes a long-term memory
  22. Working Memory
    A system for working with current information
  23. Executive Functioning
    An aspect of working that governs shifts of attention

    Ex: The ability to shift attention as needed among different tasks
  24. Depth of Processing Principle
    How easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations you form

    The more ways you think about the material, the deeper the processing, and the easier you will remember it later
  25. Retrieval Cues
    Reminders that will stimulate your memory later
  26. Encoding specificity principle
    Associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues later
  27. Mnemonic Device
    Any memory aid device based on encoding items in a special way

    Ex: PEMDAS
  28. Method of Loci (Method of Places)
    First, you memorize a series of places, and then you a vivid image to associate each location with something you want to remember
  29. Hypermnesia
    Gain of memory over time

    Ex: Opposite of amnesia
  30. Hindsight Bias
    Tendency to mold a recollection of the past to fit how events later turned out

    Ex: Something happens and we then say, "I knew that was going to happen"
  31. Retroactive Interference
    New materials increase the forgetting of old materials (acting backward)
  32. Proactive Interference
    Old materials increase the forgetting of new materials (acting forward in time)
  33. Recovered Memories
    Reports of long-lost memories prompted by clinical techniques
  34. Regression
    The process of moving an unbearably unacceptable memory or impulse from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind
  35. Dissociation
    Referring to memory that one has stored, but cannot retrieve
  36. False Memory
    An inaccurate report that someone believes to be a memory
  37. Hippocampus
    A large, forebrain structure in the interior of the temporal lobe

    (anterograde amnesia- inability to store new, long-term memories)
  38. Retrograde Amnesia
    Loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before the brain damage
  39. Korsakoff Syndome
    A condition caused by prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism

    B1 deficiency leads to loss or shrinkage of neurons, especially in the prefrontal cortex
  40. Confabulations
    Patients with prefrontal cortex damage answer many questions with confabulations, which are attempts to fill in gaps in their memory
  41. Alzheimer's Disease
    Memory loss, confusion (anterograde and retrograde amnesia)

    Protein Plaque

    Deterioration of Brain Cells
  42. Sensory Memory
    Retains what was just sensed for less than one second, then decays rapidly. Automatic process that cannot be enhanced
  43. Infant amnesia
    The scarcity of early episodic memories
  44. Haptic Memory (Sensory Memory)
    Sensory memory for touch. Cutaneous information from the skin and kinesthetic muscle sense. Important for interacting with objects
  45. Echoic Memory (Sensory Memory)
    Holds auditory information for up to 3-4 seconds. Holds sound unprocessed until the next sound is heard, then the meaning is processed
  46. Iconic Memory (Sensory Memory)
    Retains visual information for a few hundred milliseconds
  47. Two Components of Iconic Memory
    Visible Persistence-keep seeing something for 100-300 ms

    Informational Persistence- Information about the scene, but not the scene itself. Information is visual but not visible
Card Set
Psych Chapter 7
Psych Chapter 7