TEAS Downloaded Cards

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  1. Tears
    • Contain mucus, antibodies, and lysozymeƒ
    • Enter the eye via superolateral excretory ducts ƒ
    • Exit the eye medially via the lacrimal punctumƒ
    • Drain into the nasolacrimal duct
  2. Extrinsic Eye Muscles
    • ƒ Six straplike extrinsic eye musclesƒ
    • Enable the eye to follow moving objectsƒ
    • Maintain the shape of the eyeballƒ
    • Four rectus musclesƒ
    • Two oblique muscles move the eye in the vertical plane
  3. Structure of the Eyeball
    • A slightly irregular hollow sphere with anterior and posterior polesƒ
    • The wall is composed of three tunics – fibrous, vascular, and sensoryƒ
    • The internal cavity is filled with fluids called humorsƒ
    • The lens separates the internal cavity into anterior and posterior segments
  4. Pupil
    • central opening of the iris
    • Regulates the amount of light entering the eye during: ƒ
    • Close vision and bright light – pupils constrictƒ
    • Distant vision and dim light – pupils dilateƒ
    • Changes in emotional state – pupils dilate when the subject matter is appealing or requires problem-solving skills
  5. Sensory Tunic: Retina
    • A delicate two-layered membraneƒ
    • Pigmented layer – the outer layer that absorbs light and prevents its scatteringƒ
    • Neural layer, which contains:ƒ
    • Photoreceptors that transduce light energyƒ
    • Bipolar cells
  6. The Retina: Optic Disc
    • The optic disc:ƒ
    • Is the site where the optic nerve leaves the eyeƒ
    • Lacks photoreceptors (the blind spot)
  7. Inner Chambers and Fluids
    • The lens separates the internal eye into anterior and posterior segmentsƒ
    • The posterior segment is filled with a clear gel called vitreous humor
  8. vitreous humor
    • Transmits lightƒ
    • Supports the posterior surface of the lens ƒ
    • Holds the neural retina firmly against the pigmented layerƒ
    • Contributes to intraocular pressure
  9. Lens
    • A biconvex, transparent, flexible, avascular structure that:ƒ
    • Allows precise focusing of light onto the retinaƒ
    • With age, the lens becomes more compact and dense and loses its elasticity
  10. Focusing Light on the Retina
    Pathway of light entering the eye: cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, and the neural layer of the retina to the photoreceptors
  11. Chemical Senses
    gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell)
  12. Their chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution
    • Taste – to substances dissolved in salivaƒ
    • Smell – to substances dissolved in fluids of the nasal membranes
  13. Sense of Smell
    • The organ of smell is the olfactory epithelium, which covers the superior nasal conchaƒ
    • Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons with radiating olfactory cilia
  14. Physiology of Smell
    Olfactory receptors respond to several different odor-causing chemicals
  15. Taste Buds
    • Most of the 10,000 or so taste buds are found on the tongueƒ
    • Taste buds are found in papillae of the tongue mucosaƒ
    • Papillae come in three types: filiform, fungiform, and circumvallateƒ
    • Fungiform and circumvallate papillae contain taste buds
  16. Physiology of Taste
    • ƒ In order to be tasted, a chemical:ƒ
    • Must be dissolved in salivaƒ
    • Must contact gustatory hairsƒ
    • Binding of the food chemical:ƒ
    • Depolarizes the taste cell membrane, releasing neurotransmitterƒ
    • Initiates a generator potential that elicits an action potential
  17. Influence of Other Sensations on Taste
    • ƒ Taste is 80% smellƒ
    • Thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nociceptorsalso influence tastesƒ
    • Temperature and texture enhance or detract from taste
  18. The Ear: Hearing and Balance
    • ƒ The three parts of the ear are the inner, outer, and middle earƒ
    • The outer and middle ear are involved with hearingƒ
    • The inner ear functions in both hearing and equilibriumƒ
    • Receptors for hearing and balance: ƒ
    • Respond to separate stimuliƒ
    • Are activated independently
  19. Outer Ear
    • The auricle (pinna) is composed of:ƒ
    • The helix (rim)ƒ
    • The lobule (earlobe)ƒ
    • External auditory canalƒ
    • Short, curved tube filled with ceruminous glands
  20. Outer Ear
    • ƒ Tympanic membrane (eardrum)ƒ
    • Thin connective tissue membrane that vibrates in response to soundƒ
    • Transfers sound energy to the middle ear ossiclesƒ
    • Boundary between outer and middle ears
  21. Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity)
    • A small, air-filled, mucosa-lined cavity ƒ
    • Flanked laterally by the eardrumƒ
    • Flanked medially by the oval and round windowsƒ
    • Pharyngotympanic tube – connects the middle ear to the nasopharynxƒ
    • Equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity with the external air pressure
  22. Ear Ossicles
    • The tympanic cavity contains three small bones: the malleus, incus, and stapesƒ
    • Transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window
  23. Inner Ear: ƒ Bony labyrinth
    • Tortuous channels worming their way through the temporal boneƒ
    • Contains the vestibule, the cochlea, and the semicircular canalsƒ
    • Filled with perilymph
  24. Inner Ear: Membranous labyrinth
    • ƒ Series of membranous sacs within the bony labyrinthƒ
    • Filled with a potassium-rich fluid
  25. The Semicircular Canals
    • Three canals that each define two-thirds of a circle and lie in the three planes of space ƒ
    • Membranous semicircular ducts line each canalƒ
    • The ampulla is the swollen end of each canal and it houses equilibrium receptors ƒ
    • These receptors respond to angular movements of the head
  26. The Cochlea
    • ƒ A spiral, conical, bony chamber that:ƒ
    • Extends from the anterior vestibuleƒ
    • Contains the organ of Corti (hearing receptor)ƒ
    • The cochlear branch of nerve VIII runs from the organ of Corti to the brain
  27. Sound and Mechanisms of Hearing
    • Sound vibrations beat against the eardrumƒ
    • The eardrum pushes against the ossicles, which presses fluid in the inner ear against the oval and round windowsƒ
    • This movement sets up shearing forces that pull on hair cellsƒ
    • Moving hair cells stimulates the cochlear nerve that sends impulses to the brain
  28. What muscle is responsible for depressing the eye and turning it laterally?
    Superior Oblique
  29. The fovea centralis containes the only one type of neuron - what is it?
  30. Which photoreceptors respond to very dim light?
    Rods are our dim-light and peripheral vision receptors. They are more numerous and far more sensitive to light than cones are, but they do not provide sharp images or color vision. This is why colors disappear and the edges of objects appear fuzzy in dim light and at the edges of our visual field
  31. Where are equilibrium receptors located?
    The equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibule are collectively called the vestibular apparatus. The receptors in the vestibule monitor linear acceleration and the position of the head with respect to gravity. Because gravity is constant, this is sometimes called our sense of static equilibrium. The semicircular canals monitor changes in head rotation, sometimes called our sense of dynamic equilibrium.
  32. The receptor organ for hearing is the __________.
    The cochlear duct (of the cochlea) houses the receptor organ of hearing, called the spiral organ or the organ of Corti. It responds to fluid movement (vibration) in the cochlea generated by the tympanic membrane and transmitted by the middle ear ossicles.
  33. Which region of the ear houses perilymph and endolymph?
    Inner Ear
  34. Which region of the ear is involved in detection of both hearing and equilibrium?
    the Inner Ear
  35. Transmission of Sound to the Inner Ear
    • ƒ The route of sound to the inner ear follows this pathway:ƒ
    • Outer ear – pinna, auditory canal, eardrumƒ
    • Middle ear – malleus, incus, and stapes to the oval windowƒ
    • Inner ear – scalas vestibuli and tympani to the cochlear duct ƒ
    • Stimulation of the organ of Cortiƒ Generation of impulses in the cochlear nerve
    • Trophic Level
    • a category of living things defined by how it gains its energy; the first tropic level contains autotrophs, and each higher level contains heterotrophs
  36. autotroph
    an organism that uses the Sun's energy and raw materials to make its own food; a producer
  37. primary consumer
    in a food chain or food web, an organism that relies directly on autotrophs for its source of energy; organisms at the second tropic level
  38. secondary consumer
    in a food chain or food web, an organism that relies on primary consumers for its principal source of energy; organisms at the third trophic level
  39. heterotroph
    an organism that is incapable of making its own food, and so must feed on other organisms to gain energy
  40. Photosynthesis
    the process by which green plants and some other organisms use solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates
  41. Cellular Respiration
    the process by which cells break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy
  42. chemosynthesis
    the process by which non-photosynthetic organisms convert inorganic chemicals to organic compounds without solar energy
  43. Chemoautotroph
    an organism that can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic chemicals without using solar energy
  44. food web
    a representation of the feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem
  45. Dormitory effect:
    • -Women grouped togehter for a long period of time in dormitories tend to have synchronized menstrual cycles
    • -College women who have sex often have menstrual cycles that are less variable in length than women who are virgins
  46. Human menstrual cycle:
    • *Highly coordinated series of endocrine events that results in ovulation from a single follicle and preparation of uterus to receive embryo
    • *Cycle driven by the activity of hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator and surge center
    • *LH and FSH induce steroid secretion by the ovaries with structural changes in the ovaries and the uterine tissues
  47. 28 day Menstrual Cycle:
    1. First Day
    3.Follicular Phase
    • 1.1st day of phase
    • 2.lasts 5 days
    • 3.day 6-14
    • 4.Day 14 (14 days before next mesntruation)
    • 5. Day 15-28
  48. MENSES (Menstrual) Phase: (early follicular phase)
    -4-5 days (can be 6)
  49. Follicular Phase:
    • -Rapid growth of ovarian follicles
    • -Days 6 to 14
    • -Ovarian follicles continue growth that began during the menstrual phase resulting in estradiol production which supports the growth of endometrium
  50. Ovulation:
    • -14 days before next menstruation
    • -14 to 28 or 16-30
    • -If fertilization doesnt occur the OVUM disintegrates
    • -If it does occur then the embryo implants in the uterine lining
  51. Luteal Phase:
    • -15-28
    • -Corpus Luteum formed from the wall of the ovulated follicle secretes progesterone and estradiol which prepares the uterus for implantation of the embryo
    • -Corpus Luteum of previous cycle disintegrates DRAMATICALLY DECREASES PROGESTERONE AND ESTROGEN which cause the stratum functionalis to disintegrate
    • -33-83mL of blood usually lost, but up to 267mL can be lost.
  53. DAY ONE:
    • -FSH,LH, ESTROGEN, and PROGESTERONE are all low
    • -small tertiary follicles present
  54. Day 3:
    -FSH, LH , and ESTROGEN moderately elevated

    • -PROGESTERONE stays low through menstrual phase
    • -Some tertiary follicles now larger
  55. Days 6-14:
    • -Rapid growth of ovarian follicles
    • -Ovarian follicles continue growth that began during the menstrual phase resulting in estradiol production which causes growth of the uterine endometrium)
    • -Estradiol secreted by developing follicles which causes endometrium to thicken during follicular phase
  56. Days 10-12:
    -FSH causes some teritary follicles to increase in size
  57. Day 12-13:
    • -Estrogen levels progressively rise and peak on these days
    • -Leads to POSITIVE FEEDBACK and an increased GnRH which in 2 to 3 days produces LH surge with smaller rise in FSH
    • -Small rise in FSH could be because the ovary secreting hormones INHIBIN and FOLLISTATIN inhibit the release of FSH and this counter the stimulatory effect of GnRH
  58. Day 13:
    • -1 Graafian follicle emerges and the rest become atretic
  59. Day 14:
    -Ovulation of ovum from Graafian follicle
  60. Right before Ovulation:
    • -Estrogen levels drop rapidly
    • -Graafian follicles SWITCH from delta 5 (estrogen prod) to delta 4(progesterone prod) in response to LH surge
    • -Progesterone levels begin to rise just before ovulation

  61. LH SURGE:
    • -induces resumption of meiosis in oocyte in Graafian follicle
    • -lasts 36 hours and ovulation occurs 9-12 hours after surge
  62. Ovulation:
    • -MITTELSCHMERZ: pain in abdomen
    • -Basal Body temp decreases slightly at ovulation. then rises during luteal phase of cycle
    • -Cervical mucus watery and stringy
    • -Spinnbarheit: threadability of mucus
    • -Fern test: mucus exhibits a fern-like pattern of crystals of sodium and potassium chloride when dried
    • -HIGH LH levels in blood
    • -HIGH PROGESTERONE levels in blood show in luteal phase and that ovulation has occured
    • -PREGNANEDIOL is a breakdown of progesterone that is detected in urine during luteal phase
  63. Luteal:
    • -Last 14 days from ovulation to menstruation
    • -Generous production of progesterone and estrogen furing the luteal phase cause the endometrium to become thick and spongy and its glands secrete nutrients that can be used by embryo if there is implantation
    • -Secretory Phase
    • -corpus luteum is formed from the wall of the follicle that released the ovum
    • -Corpus luteum secretes profesterone and estradiol
    • -(day 24) the corpus luteum disintegrates and progesterone and estrogen drop rapidly
    • -Onset of menstruation
    • -High ratio of progesterone to moderate estrogen INHIBITS GnRH which INHIBITS LH and FSH production
    • -LH levels are low but still can maintain the function of the corpus luteum
    • -INHIBITION of FSH restricts follicular development
  64. Menstrual cycle follicular Phase Summary:
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  65. DIAGRAM:
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  66. PMS:
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  71. spinal cord ends
    at L2 vertebra
  72. Cauda equina
    nerves inferior to spinal cord
  73. Dura mater
    attach to foramen magnum and coccygeal ligament
  74. Arachnoid mater
    contains CSF in subarachnoid space
  75. Epidural space
    between dura and vertebra
  76. Gray matter in the spinal cord contains...
    • cell bodies
    • interneurons
    • synapses
  77. White matter in the spinal cord contains...
    • myelinated axons
    • up and down spinal cord
  78. Dorsal gray matter in spinal cord..
  79. Ventral gray matter in spinal cord....
    motor cell bodies
  80. Ventral white matter in spinal cord
    motor tracts
  81. dorsal white matter in spinal cord...
    sensory tract
  82. Ventral nerve root...
    peripheral motor neuron
  83. dorsal nerve root
    peripheral sensory neuron
  84. integration center of the gray matter
    • connect sensory and motor neurons
    • connect brain and periphery
  85. Anterior (ventral) horns of the gray matter
    • somatic motor
    • cell bodies of motor neurons
  86. Posterior (dorsal) horns
    • interneurons
    • terminal axon - sensory neurons
  87. Tract
    bundles of neurons (axons) in CNS
  88. Decussation
    crossover to other side of body
  89. Ascending tracts
    • sensory neurons to brain
    • from peripheral nerve
  90. descending tracts
    • motor neurons from brain
    • to peripheral nerve
  91. Ascending tracts
    • touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception
    • to post-central gyrus, parietal lobe in the cerebrum
    • Synapse at medulla and thalamus
  92. Spinothalamic
    • ascending tract to thalamus
    • pain, temp
  93. Spinocerebellar
    • Ascending tract to cerebellum
    • Proprioception
  94. Corticospinal
    • descending pyramidal tract
    • motor for skeletal muscles
    • decussation in pyramids
    • anterior corticospinal and lateral corticospinal tract
    • Synapse with peripheral motor neuron at anterior horn
  95. Dorsal root
    • Spinal nerve root
    • sensory neurons from periphery
    • cell bodies of sensory neurons
    • dorsal root ganglion
  96. Ventral root
    • Spinal nerve roots
    • Motor neurons to periphery
    • axon of motor neurons
    • Cell bodies of motor neurons
    • anterior horn
  97. 1st neuron of the sensory pathway
    • Peripheral sensory neuron
    • receptor
    • axon
    • dorsal root ganglion
    • into posterior horn
  98. 2nd neuron of sensory pathway
    • 2nd neuron of the sensory pathway
    • synapse at thalamus
  99. 3rd neuron of sensory pathway
    • neuron above thalamus
    • goes into the brain center
  100. Motor pathway
    • 2 neurons for skeletal
    • 3 neurons for autonomic
  101. Upper motor neuron
    • Descending tract
    • cell body at anterior horn of gray matter
  102. Lower motor neuron
    • cell body in anterior horn
    • goes through ventral root
  103. Phases of respiration
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
  104. pulmonary ventilation
    exchange of gases between environment and lungs (alveoli) by breathing (inhalation and exhalation)
  105. external respiration
    exchange of gases between lungs and blood (oxygen diffuses from alveoli to surrounding blood capillaries/carbon dioxide diffuses from surrounding blood capillaries to alveoli)
  106. internal respiration
    exchange of gases between blood and cells/tissues (oxygen diffuses from blood capillaries to body cells/carbon dioxide diffuses from body cells to blood capillaries)
  107. cellular respiration
    use of oxygen by cell to catabolize nutrients and release energy; produces carbon dioxide as a waste
  108. the upper respiratory tract includes:
    • nasal cavities
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • sinuses
  109. the lower respiratory tract includes:
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
  110. pharynx
    • receives air from nasal and oral cavity
    • receives food and water from oral cavity
  111. eustachian tube
    connects ears to pharynx
  112. three divisions of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  113. larynx
    voice box
  114. cartilage of the larynx forms what?
    Adam's apple
  115. glottis
    opening between vocal cords that closes with swallowing
  116. epiglottis
    leaf-shaped cartilage that covers opening to larynx with swallowing, preventing food and liquids from entering respiratory tract
  117. trachea
    wind pipe
  118. divisions of bronchi
    • primary bronchi:first two divisions at distal end of trachea that branch to enter each lung at notch called hilum
    • secondary bronchi: branch from primary bronchi to each lobe of lung
    • tertiary bronchi: branch from secondary bronchi
    • bronchioles:branch from tertiary bronchi; no cartilage walls; have smooth muscle
    • terminal bronchioles: branch from bronchioles
    • Alveoli...
  119. Alveoli
    • air sacs at end of terminal bronchioles
    • where diffusion of O2 and CO2 occurs
    • produce surfactant
  120. What does surfactant do?
    prevent collapse of alveoli
  121. where does diffusion of O2 and CO2 occur?
  122. lungs
    • where gas diffusion takes place
    • contain bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
    • in thoracic cavity
  123. How many lobes do the lungs have?
    two left lobes and three right lobes
  124. why are there only two lobes on the left side of the lung and three on the right?
    the heart sits on the left side
  125. mediastinum
    cavity between two pleural cavities that contain heart, large blood vessels, lymph nodes, esophagus, and trachea
  126. active phase of respiration
  127. What happens during inhalation/expiration?
    • air is drawn into lungs
    • diaphragm contracts and drops down towards abdominal cavity to enlarge thoracic cavity
    • lung tissue expands
    • internal and external intercostals contract pulling rib case up and out
  128. Passive phase of respiration
  129. what happens during exhalation/expiration?
    • air is expelled from the lungs
    • diaphragm relaxes
    • intercostals relax
  130. Oxygen
    gas required by cells for catabolism of nutrients and energy production that must be continually supplied by respiratory system
  131. carbon dioxide
    gas that is a waste product of cell metabolism that must be continually removed by respiratory system
  132. transportation of oxygen
    carried towards body cells/tissues in blood (hemoglobin molecule on RBC)
  133. transportation of carbon dioxide
    carried away from the body cells/tissues in blood (hemoglobin molecule on RBC)
  134. regulation respiration
    • involuntary control always overrides voluntary control
    • chemoreceptors in carotid and aortic bodies respond to decreasing oxygen levels in circulating blood
  135. What part of the brain involuntarily controls respiration
  136. what part of the brain voluntarily controls respiration?
    cerebral cortex
  137. hyperventilation
    • increased air enters alveoli as both rate and depth increases
    • Lungs take in too much oxygen and eliminate too much carbon
  138. hypoventilation
    decreased air enters alveoli
  139. alkalosis
    lungs take in too much oxygen and eliminate too much carbon dioxide making blood alkaline
  140. acidosis
    Carbon dioxide builds up in blood making blood acidic
  141. auscultation
    listening to lungs with stethoscope (assesses breathing quality rather than rate)
  142. abnormal breathing sounds
    rales, rhonchi, wheezing, stridor
  143. rales
    abnormal musical sounds heard on inspiration; often called “crackles”
  144. rhonchi
    rattling sounds in bronchi due to obstruction or fluid; may be clear with coughing
  145. wheezing
    whistling or musical sound heard during breathing that may indicate partially blocked or narrowed airway (asthma)
  146. stridor
    high pitched sound on inspiration
  147. eupnea
    normal breathing
  148. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing (shortness of breath, painful or labored breathing)
  149. temporary cessation of breathing
  150. sputum
    fluid or secretions coughed up from lungs
  151. hemoptysis
    coughing up blood
  152. hypoxemia
    lower than normal oxygen in arterial blood
  153. hypoxia
    lower than normal oxygen in tissues
  154. Pulmonary function tests/lung function tests
    group of tests that measure how well lungs inhale and exhale air/how efficiently lungs transfer gases (CO2 and O2) in blood
  155. spirometry
    patient breathes into mouthpiece connected to instrument called spirometer; records amount and rate of air patient breathes in and out over a period of time
  156. gastronintestinal tract
    muscular tube from mouth to anus
  157. peristalis
    moves substances
  158. mucosa
    • mucus membrane w/ goblet cells
    • microvilli (absorption) in small intestines
  159. submucossa
    • connect tissue below mucosa
    • blood vessels and nerves
    • mucus secreting glands in small intestines
  160. muscularis
    • smooth muscle - peristalis
    • mixes food w/ digestive juices and propels it thru system
    • three layers in stomach
  161. serosa
    serious membrane forming peritoneum in abdominopelvic cavity
  162. order of walls in GI tract
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  163. peritoneum
    serious membrane lining abdominopelvic cavity, folds back to cover organ in cavity

    allows organs to slide over each other w/o friction

    has blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves
  164. sub-divisions of peritoneum
    • mesentery- posterior  wall to small intestine
    • mesocolon- posterior wall to colon
    • greater omentum- lower border of stomach, loops back to transverse colon
    • lesser omentum- between stomach & liver
  165. salivary amylase
    enzyme that mixes food with salivary from salivary glands to break down

    begins chemical digestion of carbs & starches
  166. deglutination
    moves food from mouth towards throat for swallowing
  167. pharynx function
    • tongue pushes bolus of food into pharynx,
    • uvula/soft palate raise to keep food out of nasal cavity
    • tongue raises to seal off oral cavity
    • epiglottis covers trachea to keep food out of respiratory tract
  168. 3 sub divisions of pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  169. what is the 10 in long muscular tube from larynx to stomach?
  170. functions of esophagus
    lubricates swallowed food, moves it by gravity (peristalsis) to stomach, no digestion
  171. hole in diaphragm the esophagus passes through before entering stomach
    esophageal hiatus
  172. cardia esophageal sphincter
    between esophagus & stomach
  173. functions of stomach
    • rugae expand (storage)
    • mixing of food by stomach muscle
    • cells secrete substance that form gastric juices
    • secretes mucus to lubricate/protect structure
  174. pepsin is activated by?
    • stomach-
    • digesting proteins
  175. chime is? formed by?
    • highly acidic semi-liquid material
    • stomach forms this,
    • result of mechanical/chemical digestion
  176. longest section of GI tract, 20 feet long?
    small intestine
  177. sub-divisons of small intestines
    • dueodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum- ileocecal valve
  178. small intestine functions
    • secrete mucus to protect from acidic chyme from stomach
    • most digestion occurs here
    • lining secretes enzymes that digest protein and carbs
  179. liver and pancreas release their digestive enzymes through the opening in what?
    duodenum of small intestine
  180. amylase of small intestine
    • maltase
    • sucrose
    • lactase

    digest starches/carbs into sugar
  181. peptisdase of small intestine

    digest proteins into amino acids
  182. lipase of small intestine
    digest fat to fatty acid and glycerol
  183. nuclease of small intestines
    digest nucleic acids
  184. Villi and Microvilli of small intestines
    • increase surface area for absorption
    • contain- blood vessels to absorb digested nutrients
    • lacteals to absorb digested fat
  185. structures of large intestines
    • cecum- pouch
    • ileocecal valve & vermiform appendix
    • ascending colon (right abdomen)
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon (left abdomen)
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
  186. large intestine function
    • secrete mucus but no digestive enzymes
    • reabsorbs water from feces
    • stored undigested food (feces)
    • INVOLUNTARY muscle of large intestines propel solid waste towards rectum
  187. defecation occurs when?
    voluntary sphincter relaxes
  188. normal flora of large intestines produce?
    • Vitamin K & B
    • destroyed by antibiotics
  189. salivary glands (in general)
    • parotid glands (near ear)
    • submandibular/sub maxillary glands (lower jaw)
    • sublingual glands (under tongue)
  190. salivary glands secrete what enzyme?
    salivary amylase
  191. saliva functions
    • chemical digestion of carbs/starches
    • keep teeth clean
    • antibodies and enzyme lysozyme to control bacterial in mouth
  192. lysozyme (of salivary glands) does?
    control bacteria in mouth
  193. largest gland, reddish born, very vascular, contains lobes, in RUQ
  194. liver functions
    • produce bile
    • salts to amulsifty fat to be absorbed
    • stores glucose as glycogen (released when blood glucose dropes)
    • modifies fat for use in body
  195. liver stores?
    • vitamins
    • iron
  196. hepatic duct
    • 2 ducts of liver that merge together
    • bile leaves here
  197. liver forms what blood plasma proteins?
    • albumin
    • globulins
    • clotting factors
  198. liver destroys?
    • worn out RBC
    • eliminates waste products (bilirubin) in bile- making the feces color
  199. liver creates what as a waste product?
    • urea- waste product of protein metabolism & release into blood stream
    • so kidneys can eliminate it in urin
  200. liver detoxifies?
    harmful substances from blood (alcohol, drugs)
  201. muscular sac below liver, in cystic duct?
  202. gallbladder functions
    • store bile- draining into hepatic duct, flows to gallbladder through cystic duct
    • releases bile when cyme enters small intestines
  203. common bile duct
    cystic duct merges w/ common hepatic duct
  204. long gland, extends from duodenum to spleen?
  205. pancreatic duct
    exocrine secretions leave pancreas here
  206. common bile duct
    pancreatic duct merges into this
  207. exocrine functions of pancrease
    secrete digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate into small intestines to neutralize acidic chyme
  208. pancreatic amylase
    chemical digestion of starches/carbs to sugars
  209. pancreatic trypsin
    chemical digestion of proteins to amino acids
  210. pancreatic lipase
    chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol
  211. pancreatic nuclease
    chemical digestion of nucleic acids, RNA, DNA
  212. endocrine functions of pancreas
    • produce hormones- insulin & glucagon
    • regulates sugar
  213. What does the urinary system consist of?
    • Two kidneys
    • two ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
  214. What is the function if the kidneys
    • Form urine to excrete waste products 
    • regulate the volume, electrolytes and pH of blood and tissue fluid
  215. What is the function of adipose tissue and renal fascia in the kidney?
    Cushion and help hold in place
  216. What is the hilus?
    An indentation on the medial sides of the kidneys, where renal arteries enter and where renal veins and ureter emerge
  217. Renal cortex
    Outer tissue layer, made of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules
  218. Renal medulla (pyramids)
    Inner tissue layer, made of loops of henle and collecting tubules
  219. Renal pelvis
    A cavity formed by the expanded end of the ureter within the kidney at the hilus
  220. Calcyes
    • Extensions around the papillae of the pyramids
    • collect urine
  221. renal corpuscle
    • In nephron
    • consists of a glomerulus surrounded by a bowmans capsule
  222. Glomerulus
    Capillary network between an afferent arteriole and an efferent arteriole
  223. Bowmans capsule
    • The expanded end of a renal tubule that encloses the glomerulus
    • inner layer made of podocytes
    • has pores
    • very permeable
    • contains renal filtrate
  224. Renal tubule
    Consists of the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convolute tubule, and collecting tubule
  225. Collecting tubule
    Unites to form papillary ducts that empty urine into the calyces of the renal pelvis
  226. Pertibular capillaries
    arise from the efferent arteriole and surround all parts of the renal tubule
  227. pathway of blood vessels in the kidney
    • abd aorta
    • renal artery
    • interlobar arteries
    • arcuate arteries
    • interlobular arteries
    • afferent arterioles
    • glomeruli
    • efferent arterioles
    • peritubular capillaries
    • interlobular veins
    • arcuate veins
    • Interlobar veins
    • renal vein
    • inferior vena cava
  228. Frontal Lobe
    • coordinates judgement and impulse control nad planning
    • motor cortex (how we move)
    • LOBES(A)
  229. Parietal Lobe
    • responsible for sensation (temp, pressure, pain)
    • sensory cortex
    • does NOT process smell
    • LOBES(B)
  230. Occipital Lobe
    • where visual info is processed
    • visual cortex
    • LOBES(C)
  231. Temporal Lobe
    • hearing and tied to speech
    • auditory cortex
    • LOBES(D)
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