Unit 3 Psych 1

  1. Neurons
    • ·         The brain is a mesh of neurons
    • ·         Neurons transmit
  2. The Synapse
    • ·         When the action potential reaches the terminal button, vesicles release neurotransmitters
    • ·         Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse receptors to the dendrites on the next neuron
    • Have either “excitatory” or “inhibitory” effects
  3. Reuptake
    ·         Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by presynaptic neuron
  4. (A few) Neurotransmitters

    • Reward, movement (deficient in Parkinson's)
    • Regulates anxiety
    • Stimulatory- Fight or flight
    • Chief inhibitor
    • Increases brain arousal
  5. Localization of brain function:
    • ·         parts of the brain do different things
    • -          Important for understanding brain dysfunction
    • -          Important for understanding brain evolution
  6. Frontal Lobe
    Reasoning, problem solving, movement, emotions, planning, parts of speech
  7. Frontal Lobe- Primary Motor Cortex
    -          Important for controlling fine movements (finger and toe)
  8. Frontal Lobe- Prefrontal Cortex
    -          Memory for what has happened and what you are going to do next (decision making)
  9. Parietal Lobe
    -          Movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli, specialized for senses
  10. Parietal Lobe- Primary Somatosensory Cortex
    -          Has cells sensitive to touch in different body areas
  11. Occipital Lobe
    -          Visual processing
  12. Occipital Lobe- Blindsight
    -          Ability to point to or indicate visual stimulus when occipital lobe is shut down
  13. Temporal Lobe
    -          Perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
  14. Temporal lobe- Amygdala

    responds strongly to emotional situations
  15. Limbic System: 4 fs
    Fighting, fleeing, feeding, fornicating- the 4 fs
  16. Hippocampus
    Important for transferring short-term memory
  17. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Prepares the body for fight or flight
  18. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    calms the body
  19. Phineas Gage
    • ·         In 1848, a 3.5-foot iron rod passed through his skull
    • ·         Was basically fine-          Initially interpreted as brain function is not localized
  20. Post-Conventional Level (Some adults may reach this level)
    Stage 5: Social Contract orientation. Laws are social contracts. They can be changed if they no longer create the greatest good.

    Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Orientation. Moral reasoning based on concept of justice. Laws can be broken if they're unjust
  21. Conventional Level (Adolescents/Adults)
    Stage 3: Nice boy, good girl orientation (conformity to norms of behavior. Whatever the group thinks is good is right by definition)

    Stage 4: Law and order orientation. Emphasis is on doing one's duty, respecting authority, maintaining social order. The law is right because its the law
  22. Pre-Conventional Level
    Typical of children

    • Stage 1: Punishment, obedience, orientation. Whatever gets me punished is wrong
    • Stage 2: Self-interest orientation. Whatever gets rewarded is good
  23. Kohlberg
    Developed the theory of stages of moral development building off of Piaget's stages of cognitive development. Consists of three levels, with two stages per level.
  24. H.M.
    • ·         Had epileptic seizures due to a childhood bike accident
    • ·         In 1953 had much of temporal lobes removed, including hippocampi
  25. H.M.s Brain Damage:
    • ·         Due to removal of hippocampi, had anterograde amnesia (could not form new memories)
    • ·         Could learn new skills, but could not remember learning them
  26. Split Brain Patient
    • ·         People with severe epilepsy can have their corpus callosum severed
    • ·         This leaves the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere unable to communicate with each other
  27. Multiple Sclerosis:
    • ·         Immune system attacks the myelin sheath
    • Interferes with signal transmission
  28. Alzheimer’s Disease:
    • ·         Exact cause is not known
    • ·         Bigger sulci, smaller gyri
    • ·         Plaques (buildup of amyloid proteins)·         Tangles (Breakdown of tau proteins leads to neurofibrillary tangles)
  29. CNS: Consists of the brain and spinal cord
    ·         Communicates with body by peripheral nervous system- nerves connecting the spinal cord with the rest of the body
  30. Contained in the Peripheral Nervous System:

    1) Somatic Nervous System:
    2) Autonomic Nervous System:
    • 1) Connects skin to muscles
    • 2) connects to heart, stomach, organs
  31. Cerebral Cortex: Define
    Outer coating of forebrain
  32. Name the three major divisions of the brain
    hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
  33. The two hemispheres in the brain each control what?
    Opposite sides of the body
  34. Mirror Neurons
    Active when you make a movement and also when you watch someone else make a movement
  35. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain electrical activities
  36. Corpus Callosum
    Set of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
  37. MEG

    Records magnetic data
  38. positron emission tomography (PET)
    • Records various activity of various brain areas emitted from injected chemicals
    • uses radioactively labeled glucose
  39. FMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
    • Uses magnetic detectors outside the head to compare the amounts of hemoglobin and oxygen in different areas.
    • ·         Most active brain areas use the most hemoglobin
  40. Hypothalamus
    Hunger, thirst, and temperature regulations
  41. Cerebral Cortex Sends signals to the:

    1) Pons and Medulla:
    2) Spinal Cord:
    • 1) controls muscles of the head
    • 2) controls muscles from neck down
  42. Cerebellum

    1) Important for what type of behavior?
    Important for behavior that requires aim or timing, such as tapping out a rhythm.
  43. Autonomic Nervous System:
    Controls heart, digestive system, and other organs
  44. Plasticity
    brain change as a result of experience
  45. Stem cells

    1) Develop into what in certain brain areas and not others?
    New neurons
  46. Binding Problem
    How separate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object (hearing a piano play and identify that that piano is the piano being played)
  47. Glia:
    Support neuron cells in many ways by insulating them, synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons, and removing waste products
Card Set
Unit 3 Psych 1
Unit 3 Psych 1