Geog121:Lecture 2

  1. Fertile Crescent
    • -900-4500 BCE
    • -middle east
    • -cradle of civilization
    • -where agriculture started
    • -able to domesticate plants and animals
    • -hunting and gathering is really hard: you had to find prey and carry your hunting tools, kill prey and drag it back home
    • -babies also slowed people down
    • -overused resources:ecosystem collapsed because people assumed resources will always be there
    • -Today; Dark red region, once green
  2. U.A.E(Palm islands)
    • -3 palm islands and the world
    • -the worst idea because nothing about it is sustainable
    • -concept:make artificial islands as a resort to attract tourists
    • -2003
    • -islands have limited resources
    • -you have to bring resources in
  3. Palm Islands:Waste
    • -did not make provisions for waste management
    • -putting artificial stuff into the body of water changes the natural way water behaves¬†
    • -changes how the global water circulation moves
    • -changes weather pattern
    • -changes sea life
    • -the islands are sinking now
    • -huge consequences but no pay off situation
  4. Why did Great Britain take over the world?
    • -80,823 sq miles
    • -island(9th largest)
    • -smaller than state of Oregon
    • -lots of lumber:built ships to find more
    • -lots of arable land
    • -lots of water
    • -used it's nearby countries to take over the world
  5. Why not Australia?
    -huge land mass but has little arable land(dry desert)
  6. Why not Greenland?
    -little arable land:ice
  7. Why not Honshu?
    • -only ll% arable
    • -volcanic mountains
    • -no natural resources except for fish
  8. British coal fields
    • -used to cover the entire island
    • -after world war I, most coal exports stopped, needed it for themselves
  9. Why do you need coal?
    -need it to make iron and steel
  10. Why was the UK able to industrialize faster?
    • -had coal and could get it easier
    • -by selling coal, it was able to acquire money which gave them more resources to industrialize
    • -sailed around world to learn from societies
    • -built their own infrastructure by expanding wealth and taking other country's resources
  11. Why did British take over Belize?
    -because they had trees
  12. To become industrialized, a country must
    • -have strong infrastructure
    • -education
    • -healthcare
    • -resources
  13. Sustainable development
    • -can only happen whenenvironment,social and economic are balanced
    • -too much emphasis on one of those fields and the country falls apart
    • -the U.S is unbalanced
    • -developed countries consume too much and developing countries consume too little, they need to consume more to be able to develop
  14. Sustainable living
    • -takes effort and changing the mindset of people
    • -European countries focus on this because they started using resources earlier than other countries
  15. Sustainable living : Developed Nation example
    • -Spain(Victoria-Gasteiz)
    • -600 yrs old city
    • -installation of solar panels and solar voltaics
    • -water effficiency
  16. Sustainable living: Developing nation example
    • -Columbia (Bogota)
    • -created more buses
    • -took over bus system
    • -buses were run by natural gases
    • -put in more bicycle lanes
    • -closed down highways certain days
    • -certain days only bicycles could be on the road
    • -Good things happened: people became closer and decreased crime
  17. Basics of a sustainable system
    • -the ecosystem provides energy and resources
    • -receives waste
    • -a system(or community) cannot expand indefinitely¬†
    • -limited by resource availability
    • -limited by tolerance to accept waste(water, air, natural or manufactured)
  18. Imbalance causes collapse
    • -Easter Island used to have a very strong society but used all of its resources
    • -whole population disappeared
  19. Wealth is acquired at the
    • -expense of the environment
    • -it does not have to be true, but historically it has been true
  20. Belize (Since Independence from UK)
    • -started regrowing trees
    • -leader in Central America in sustainable development
  21. Linear flow of Today's Industrial system
    • 1. Unlimited resources
    • -limited resources
    • -wastes
    • -environmental degradation
    • 2. Mineral extraction
    • 3. Production
    • -powered by ceap fossil fuels
    • 4. Consumption
    • -conflicts
    • 5. Unlimited waste
    • 6. Ecosystem damage
  22. Effects of unbalanced ecosystem
    • 1. Local effects
    • -you can see
    • 2. Regional effects
    • -you can see over time
    • 3. Global effects
    • -what happens in one part of the world ultimately affects the other part of the world
  23. Chemicals
    • -30,000 chemicals on the market today
    • -1/3 are produced in quantities of 1,000 tons/yr
    • -since 1993 less than 10 chemicals have been thoroughly tested for their impact on both humans and the environment
  24. Where do all the chemicals go?
    • -runoff
    • -cattle food
  25. Ecological footprint
    • -all human activity has an ecological footprint
    • -more obvious in developed countries
  26. Exponential Growth since 1950
    • 1. Population
    • 2. Carbon dioxide concentration
    • 3. Species Extinction
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Geog121:Lecture 2