1. Two functions of the circulatory system
    • 1. Delivers O2
    • 2. Removes waste (CO2) to lungs and kidneys for excretion
  2. What is epistaxis?
  3. Definition of shock
    Failure of the circulatory system to adequately perfuse the body
  4. Hypoperfusion
    Decreased blood flow through an organ; if prolonged can result in shock
  5. Hypovolemic shock
    shock resulting from low blood volume caused by excessive bleeding, GI illness, fever, diabetes, etc.
  6. Signs and symptoms of blood loss
    Constriction of veins, arteries, increased heart rate, rate of breathing.
  7. Effects of epinephrine
    • 1. cardiac output is increased
    • 2. blood flow to the brain increases
    • 3. pupils dilate
    • 4. blood flow is redistributed (causes pale, cool, clammy skin)
    • 5. respiratory rate increases
  8. What is anemia?
    low supply of hemoglobin
  9. Describe arterial bleeding
    spurting, pulsatile, red.
  10. Describe capillary bleeding
    continuous, oozing, dark red
  11. Describe venous bleeding
    Continuous, dark red or purple, superficial flow
  12. Methods of bleeding control
    • 1. direct pressure
    • 2. elevation
    • 3. pressure points
    • 4. splinting if applicable
    • 5. tourniquet
  13. Epistaxis can result from what 4 things?
    • 1. trauma to the skull
    • 2. digital trauma (nose picking)
    • 3. medical conditions (high blood pressure, sinusitis, etc)
    • 4. Coagulation or clotting disorders
  14. Cardiogenic shock is what?
    caused when the heart can no longer pump blood adequately resulting in a decrease in cardiac output and then a decrease in perfusion
  15. Signs of cardiogenic shock
    • edema, distended veins, (back up in systemic side),
    • or shortness of breath, noisy breathing caused by fluid in the lungs.
  16. Patient positions for cardiogenic shock
    Position of comfort. Sitting if tolerated, aids breathing. Supine if pt is weak with AMS.
  17. Conditions that cause vasodilatory shock
    anaphalaxis and spinal cord injuries
  18. Define vasodilatory shock
    when the vascular system loses its ability to constrict and blood pressure falls
  19. Septic shock
    resulting from massive infection caused mainly from vasodilation. Further complicated by leakage of fluid through the blood vessel walls, resulting in hypovolemia
  20. Basic treatment for shock
    • 1. ABCs
    • 2. High concentration O2
    • 3. If applicable, splint bone or joint injuries, immobilize on backboard
    • 4. Maintain body temp with blankets
  21. Signs of shock mneumonic
    • T-thirst
    • V-vomiting and nausea
    • S-sweating
    • P-pulse, weak and rapid
    • A-AMS, including anxiety
    • R-respirations, shallow and rapid
    • C-cool and cyanotic skin
    • U-Unresponsive
    • B-BP increases early and decreases late
    • E-eyes blank or dialated
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