Chapter 9: Language Differences and Disorders

  1. infant directed speech in western speakers
    • unique speech register used by adults in western cultures to talk to infants from birth 
    • characteristics:
    •    high overall pitch
    •    exaggerated pitch contours
    •    slower tempos in comparison to adult-directed speech
    • simplfying characteristics of id are not present in all cultures
    • id speech of different cultures ranges in its communicative accomodation from highly child-centered to highly situation-centered
  2. dialects
    • dialects are regional or social varieties of lang that differ form one another in terms of pronunciation, vocab, grammar
    •    develop over a prolonged period when people are separated by geographical or social barriers
    • everyone speaks some dialect or variety of a lang
    • in general people who speak different dialects of a lang can understand on another
  3. accents
    varieties of lang that differ solely on pronunciation
  4. what is perceived to be the highest status in the us
    standard american english

    • in england it is received pronunciation
    • children develop the perceptions of higher status sounding english at an early age and it is perpetuated throughout life
  5. magic boxes study
    children selected the talking box that spoke GAE (GENERAL AMERICAN ENGLISH) because it talked better
  6. AAVE
    • African American Vernacular English
    • phonological differences: consonant cluster reduction
    •     old=ol', west=wes', deletion of suffix-s= she drive and possessive suffix 's=my sister ca
    • grammatical differences: distinctions between habitual
    •     anita be working, (reg) temporary- anita working (at the time)
    • phonological inversion
    •     /ask/=/aks/
  7. pidgins
    • simplified type of lang that develops when speaker who do not share a common lang come into prolonged contact with another lang
    • have no native speakers, used as a 2nd lang, particularly in situations where they are conducting business with one another
    • utilize the lexicon of the most dominant of the 2 langs and the phonology and syntactic structure of the less dominant lang
    •    Hawaiian Pidgen=ENglish and Philippine langs
  8. Dual lang learners
    people who acquire 2 or more langs throughout the course of their lives
  9. bilingualism
    the process whereby children essentially acquired 2 first langs
  10. multilingualism
    acquire more than 2 first langs
  11. simultaneous bilingualism
    • acquire 2 or more langs from birth, or simultaneously
    •    receive lang input in 2 or more forms from parents, grandparents, other close relatives or childcare providers
  12. majority ethnolinguistic community
    • group that speaks a lang that the majority of people in an area value and assign high social status
    •    generally persons share cultural and ethnic backgrounds 
    •    official or unofficial "standard" in the community
  13. minority ethnolinguistic community
    • a group that speaks a lang that few people in the community speak or value
    •   may have lower social status
    •   may receive little or no institutional support
  14. sequential bilingualism
    • learn tow first langs in succession, usually within the first three years of life before developing proficiency in the first of the two langs
    • some kinds of advantages and setbacks as children who acquire multiple langs simultaneously, depending on their status in a major or minor ethnoliguistic community
  15. unitary lang system hypothesis
    • mastering one at a time
    • children are not bilingual until they successfully differentiate between the 2 langs
  16. dual lang system hypothesis
    • mastering two at a time
    • does not presuppose that children move through stages whereby they come to differentiate between two langs
    •     bilingual children establish 2 separate lang systems from the outset of lang acquisition
    • research favored
  17. code switching
    • or code mixing
    • speakers alternate btw langs when they have more than one lang in common
  18. intrautterance mixing
    • alternation occurs within a single utterance possible two words as opposed to a sentence 
    • yeah, ok
  19. intrasentential mixing
    alternation occurs within one sentence
  20. interutterance mixing
    alternation occurs btw utterances
  21. intersentential mixing
    alternation occurs btw sentences
  22. what do children use more within the elements of code switching?
    interutterance mixing more than intrautterance mixing, especially in the 1-word and 2 word stages of development
  23. reasons for code switching
    • fill in lexical or grammatical gaps
    • lack translation equivalent for a word, no matter whether using more proficient or less proficient lang
    • pragmatic effect
    • social norms of their community
  24. second lang acquisiton
    • sla
    • the process by which children who have already established a sold foundation in their first lang (L1) learn an additional lang
    • sla usually does not occur in school, either as the majority lang for a community or as a foreign lang
  25. interlanguage
    • during L2 acquisition, speakers create lang system called interlang
    •    includes elements of L1 and 2 plus elements not found in either lang
    •    by combining lang from L1 and 2 you create lang that does not exist
  26. language stablization
    occurs once the interlang stops evolving and L2 learners reach a plateau in their lang development
  27. language fossilization
    • to become permanently established in the interlanguage of a second lang learner in a form that is deviant from the target lang norm-continues to appear regardless to further exposure to the target lang
    •    learn to refer to the changed word even after you have acquired the actual word in both langs
  28. tu
  29. English as a second language
    • learning english after they have L1
    • english as an additional lang (EAL) when they speak two or more langs learns english
    • english language learner (ELL) used in schools to designate child with limited english proficiency
  30. language difference v. language disorder
    lang diff: normal variability we see among children in their lang development
  31. language difference v. language disorder:
    implications for not correctly differentiaign lang diff v disorder
    • failure to provide needed therapy when appropriate-they don't outgrow it
    • over-identification of minority students-stigma out of classroom disproportionality
  32. language difference v. language disorder:
    cultural context
    • a cultural community's approach to socializing children can influence the amount and quality of lang that children experience in their home and community
    • ex: seen and not heard, eye contact, socialization: children don't talk unless spoken to etc
  33. language difference v. language disorder:
    definition of language disorder
    • asha says:
    • language disorder is present when an individual exhibits-
    •   "impaired comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems. The disorder may involve:
    •    1. the form
    •    2. the content
    •    3. the use or function of language in communication in any combo
  34. what else to professionals consider when applying the definition of a lang disorder?
    • 1. the extent to which lang difficulties has a negative impact on social, psychological, and educational functioning
    • 2. the extent to which lang difficulties may represent a lang differences
    • 3. the extent to which lang difficulties are significant enough to be considered disordered
  35. what is a language disorder
    born with a lang disorder
    • born with a lang disorder: delays in obtaining critical lang precursors in the first year of life
    •    1. babbling
    •    2. gesturing
  36. what is a language disorder
    toddler and preschool years
    • slow to achieve important early lang milestones
    •    1. speaking 1st word
    •    2. combining words into sentences
    •    3. initiating conversation with adults or peers, toddlers tend to interpret non-literal lang as literal
  37. what is a language disorder
    school age years
    • 1. struggle with academic skills that rely on lang proficiency, including reading and writing
    • 2. problems with complex lang tasks
    •    using and understanding figurative and abstract lang
  38. common signs of lang disorder
    language disorder terminology
    • lang delay: connotation that children exhibiting probs with lang development are having a late start with lang development and can be expected to catch up with their peers 
    •    1. many children with lang disorders do not catch up with their peers over time
    • language impairment and lang disorder: most accurate representation of a child exhibiting lang difficulties
    •    1. describing children experiencing significant challenges in lang development relative to other children   
    • Language disability: suggests that a child’s language difficulties are exerting a significant, negative impact on daily-living activities or functions
    • language disability: suggests that a child's lang difficulties are exerting a significant, negative impact on daily-living activities or functions
    • language learning disability: older children with lang disoders who experience difficulties with academic achievement in areas associated with lang, such as reading, writing and spelling
  39. primary language impairment
    • significant impairment of lang in the absence of any other developmental difficulty
    •   commonly called specific lang impairment or SLI
  40. Secondary lang impairment
    • lang disorders resulting from other conditions
    •    common types include: mental retardation, autism, traumatic brain injury
  41. interdisciplinary team members
    • speech lang pathologist
    •    screen for lang disorders
    •    conduct evaluations
    •    diagnose lang disorders
    •    develop and administer treatment to remediated disorders
    • psychologists
    •    oversee treatment and diagnosis for traumatic injuries
    • general ed
    •    include teachers
    •    teachers identify children who may have an issue
    •    knowledgeable about where a child stands
    • special ed
    •    lead teacher in classroom serving primarily students with disability
    •       itinerant teacher-slp, has no classroom
    • early interventionists
    •    professionals with specialization in intervention for infants and toddlers
    • audiologists
    •    specialist in identifying, assessing and managing disorders of the auditory, balance and other neural systems
    • developmental pediatricians
    •    expertise in managing complex disorders that impact various aspects of development in young children
    • otolaryngologists
    •    close collaborators in diagnosis of lang disorders
  42. major types of child lang disorders
    • Primary Disabilities: 5 conditions typically associated with language disorders among children and adolescents:
    •    -Specific language impairment
    •    -Autism spectrum disorder
    •    -Mental retardation
    •    -Traumatic brain injury
    •    -Hearing loss   
    • Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
  43. cluster analysis
    • statistical approach that attempts to organize data into meaningful clusters of scores
    •    identify subgroups of SLI by statistically analyzing the scores of children with SLI on a range of lang tasks, to include phonological, syntactic, morphologic, semantic, and pragmatic measures
    • some have difficulty with expressive and receptive lang while others have a more focal impairment in one area or the other
  44. autism spectrum disorder
    • umbrella term that includes: autism, childhoold disintegrative disorder, asperger's syndrome, and pervasive development disoorder (PDD)
    •    Impact 1 in 500 children with higher prev for boys
  45. autism
    • severe developmental disability with symptoms that emerge before child is 3
    • 3 conditions for diagnosis:
    •    -impaired social interactions
    •    -moderate to severe impairment of communication skill
    •       -echolalia=stereotypical repetitions of specific words or phrases in greeting or remembering sort of situations (hello, my name is Rod and partner repeats the sentence)
    •    -restrictive, repetitive and stereortypical behaviors and interests
    •       -childhood disintegrative disorder
    • severe developmental disability with symptoms that emerge before 3
  46. intellectual disability
    • formally mental retardation 
    • condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period
  47. intellectual disability
    what 2 criteria must be met for under the age of 18
    • significant limitations in intellectual functioning
    • significant limitations in adaptive behavior
  48. intellectual disability
    mild to profound
    • Most children with ID exhibit at least 1 mild impairment of language     
    • Delays in early communicative behaviors and are slow to use their first words and produce multi-word combinations
    • Children with mild MR may have well-developed oral language skills with only minor difficulties with abstract concepts, figurative language, complex syntax, conversational participation, and communicative repairs
    • Children with more severe forms of retardation will display more significant deficits in language expression and comprehension
    •    -Some never learn to express themselves through verbal means
    •    -Augmentative and alternative communicative (AAC) device
  49. tbi
    • traumatic brain injury
    • damage or insult to brain tissues sometime after birth
    • young children, adolescent males, and elderly are the greatest risk, males twice as like to be affected than females
    • severe injury is accompanied by a coma of 6 hours or more
    •    -result from infection, disease, and physical truama
    •    -common causes in children: abuse, intentional harm, accidental poisoning through ingestion of toxic substances, car accidents, and falling
  50. tbi
    what is the most common tbi
    • closed head injury in which brain matter is not exposed or penetrated
    •    -car accident
    •    -shaken baby syndrome
    •    -
  51. open head injuries
    • brain matter exposed through penetration, as would occur with a gunshot wound
    • CHI AND OHI the immediate injury to the brain is often accompanied by secondary brain injuries that result from the primary trauma
    • injury to brain usually damages the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which house the centers for much of our executive and lang functions
  52. language disorders resulting from brain injury are influenced by:
    • the severity
    • the site of damage
    • the characteristics of the child before the injury occurred
  53. what aspect of lang is most commonly impaired with tbi
    language use or pragmatics
  54. what do majority of children with tbi have trouble with
    • discourse
    •    fragmented language 
    •    difficult to follow what they are talking about
    •    word retrieval issues
    • tbi may also affect cognitive, executive and behavioral skills
    •    difficulty with sustained attention
    • referred to as an invisible epidemic
  55. hearing loss
    • physical condition in which an individual is unable to detect or distinguish the full range of sounds normally available to the human ear
    •    result from pernatal, perinatal, or postnatal damage to any one of the structures that carry auditory info from the external world to the brain centers that process auditory info
  56. conductive loss
    damage to the outer or middle ear
  57. sensorineural loss
    damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve
  58. bilaterally and unilaterally
    • bi-both ears
    • uni-one ear
  59. auditory processing disorder
    • apd
    • hearing loss that results from damage to the centers of the brain that processes audittory info
    • heterogeneous group based on type of loss and timing and severity of the loss
  60. congenital hearing loss
    • hearing loss present at birth
    •    -about 50% of cases have unknown reasons
    •    -more prevalent causes include genetic transmission, in-utero infections, prematurity, pregnancy complications and trauma during birthing process
  61. acquired hearing loss
    • hearing loss that occurs after birth 
    •    -prominent causes include: noise exposure, infection, use of ototoxic medications, and chronic middle ear infections
  62. prelingual hearing loss
    acquired after birth but before the child has developed lang
  63. postlingual hearing loss
    acquired sometime after the child has developed lang
  64. what 4 factors that determine the extent to which hearing loss impacts childs development
    • timing of the loss
    • severity
    • age of identification
    • exposure to lang input
  65. cochlear implants
    • new approach to intervention for children 12 months and up with severe to profound hearing loss
    •     surgical implantation of a receiver-stimulator (in hollowed portion of mastoid bone)and electrode array (in the cochlea), which accompany external hardware worn by the user (mic, speech processor, transmitter, power supply)
Card Set
Chapter 9: Language Differences and Disorders
343 Speech and Language Development, Levy-Craven