1. What are hormones and what do they do?
    hormones are chemical messengers that regulate bodily functions
  2. How are hormones carried?
    • can be free molecules, such as with amines
    • or bound to transport carriers such as with steroids
  3. How are hormone levels controlled?
    • Hypothalamus release of trophic hormones and pituitary release of hormones to glands
    • negative feedback
  4. How are hormones classified?
    • According to structure
    • amines
    • peptides
    • steroids
  5. Meow
    Image Upload 1
  6. up-regulation
    the cell makes more receptors
  7. down-regulation
    the cell makes fewer receptors
  8. What happens in hypothyroidism?
    • Opposite of hyperthyroidism
    • Reduced metabolism
    • Cold
    • Weight gain
    • Hoarse voice
    • Bowel problems
    • Heart problems
  9. What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism
    • Horse voice (neigh)
    • Bowel problems
    • Cold
    • Weight gain
    • Reduced metabolism
    • Goiter
  10. Major causes of hypothyroidism
    • Can be congenital or acquired
    • Acquired is myxedema
  11. What are the major manifestations of Cushing's Syndrome?
    • Results from adrenal hyperfunction
    • This means too much Cortisol is being released
    • This can result in diabetes
  12. What causes type 1 Diabetes
    Autoimmune beta cell destruction
  13. What metabolic abnormalities can lead to type 2 diabetes?
    Cushing's and acromegally
  14. What are the complications associated with diabetes?
    • vascular - macrovascular and microvascular
    • neuropathic - autonomic and sensory
    • kidney
  15. Vascular complications of diabetes

    • large vessel damage
    • stroke
    • atherosclerosis
    • heart attack
  16. Complications of diabetes

    • Thickening of the basement membrane of capillaries
    • retinopathy
    • nephropathy
  17. Neuropathic complications of diabetes

    • GI
    • Bladder dysfunction
    • Postural hypotension
    • Sexual dysfunction
  18. Neuropathic complications of diabetes

    • Parathesias
    • Pain
    • Loss of function
  19. Kidney
    Excess glucose passing through nephrons causes stretching so much that the Bowman's capsule cannot allow filtrate into the glomerulus properly, so the glomerulus becomes so scarred that kidney failure will result
Card Set
Patho test 4