med term ch 5

  1. absorption
    passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
  2. amino acids
    small building blocks of proteins; released when proteins are digested
  3. amylase
    enzyme secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch
  4. anus
    terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside body
  5. appendix
    blind pouch hanging from the cecum
  6. bile
    digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; breaks up large fat globules; composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts
  7. bilirubin
    pigments released by the liver in bile
  8. bowel
  9. canine teeth
    pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors; also called cuspids or eyeteeth
  10. cecum
    first part of the large intestines
  11. colon
    consists of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments
  12. common bile duct
    carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum; also called the choledochus
  13. defecation
    elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
  14. deglutition
  15. dentin
    primary material found in teeth; covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
  16. digestion
    breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
  17. duodenum
    first part of the small intestine; measures 12 inches long
  18. elimination
    act of removal of materalds from the body
  19. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules
  20. enamel
    hard, outermost layer of a tooth
  21. enzyme
    chemical that speeds up reactions between substances; enzyme names end in -ase
  22. esophagus
    tube connecting the throat to the stomach
  23. fatty acids
    substances produced when fats are digested; a category of lipids
  24. feces
    solid wastes; stool
  25. gall bladder
    small sac under the liver; stores bile
  26. glucose
    simple sugar
  27. glycogen
    starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the liver
  28. hydrochloric acid
    substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
  29. ileum
    third part of the small intestines
  30. incisor
    one of four front teeth in the dental arch
  31. insulin
    hormone produced by endocrine cells of the pancreas; transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
  32. jejunum
    second part of the small intestine
  33. lipase
    pancreatic enzyme needed to digest fats
  34. liver
    large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen; secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out RBC'S; filters out toxins; normal adult liver weights about 2 1/2 to 3 pounds
  35. lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
    ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach; cardiac sphincter
  36. mastication
  37. molar teeth
    sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
  38. palate
    roof of the mouth
  39. pancreas
    organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
  40. papillae (singular:papilla)
    small, nipple-like elevations on the tongue
  41. parotid gland
    salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
  42. peristalsis
    rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
  43. pharynx
    throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
  44. portal vein
    large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
  45. protease
    enzyme that digests protein
  46. pulp
    soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
  47. pyloric sphincter
    ring of muscles at the end of the stomach near the duodenum; opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it
  48. pylorus
    distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
  49. rectum
    last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon to the anus
  50. rugae
    ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
  51. saliva
    digestive juice produced by salivary glands; contains the enzyme amylase
  52. salivary glands
    parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
  53. sigmoid colon
    fourth and last, s-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
  54. sphincter
    circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
  55. stomach
    muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
  56. triglycerides
    fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol; subgroup of lipids
  57. uvula
    soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
  58. villi (singular: villus)
    microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestines that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
  59. an/o
  60. append/o
  61. bucc/o
  62. cec/o
  63. celi/o
  64. cheil/o
  65. cholecyst/o
  66. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  67. col/o
  68. colon/o
  69. dent/i
  70. duoden/o
  71. enter/o
    intestines, usually small intestine
  72. esophagi/o
  73. faci/o
  74. gastr/o
  75. gingiv/o
  76. gloss/o
  77. hepat/o
  78. ile/o
  79. jejun/o
  80. labi/o
  81. lapar/o
  82. lingu/o
  83. mandibul/o
    • lower jaw
    • mandible
  84. odont/o
  85. or/o
  86. palat/o
  87. pancreat/o
  88. peritone/o
  89. pharyng/o
  90. proct/o
    anus and rectum
  91. pylor/o
    pyloric sphincter
  92. rect/o
  93. sialaden/o
    salivary gland
  94. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  95. stomat/o
  96. uvul/o
  97. amyl/o
  98. bil/i
    gall, bile
  99. bilirubin/o
    bilirubin (bile pigment)
  100. chol/e
    gall or bile
  101. chlorhydr/o
    hydrochloric acid
  102. gluc/o
  103. glyc/o
  104. glycogen/o
    glycogen, animal starch
  105. lip/o
  106. lith/o
  107. prote/o
  108. py/o
  109. sial/o
    saliva, salivary
  110. steat/o
  111. -ase
  112. -chezia
    defecation, elimination of wastes
  113. -iasis
    abnormal condition
  114. -prandial
  115. anorexia
    lack of appetite
  116. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  117. borborygymus (plural: borborygmi)
    rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid or both in the GI tract
  118. constipation
    difficulty in passing stools
  119. diarrhea
    frequent passage of loose, watery stools
  120. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  121. eructation
    gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
  122. flatus
    fas expelled through the anus
  123. hematochezia
    passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
  124. jaundice (icterus)
    yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels in bilirubin in the blood
  125. melena
    black tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
  126. nausea
    unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit
  127. steatorrhea
    fat in the feces; frothy, foul smelling fecal matter
  128. aphthous stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers
  129. dental caries
    tooth decay
  130. herpetic stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpes virus
  131. oral leukoplakia
    white plaques or patches
  132. periodontal disease
    inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth and surrounding bone
  133. achalasia
    failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax
  134. esophageal cancer
    malignant tumor of the esophagus
  135. esophageal varices
    swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
  136. gastric carcinoma
    malignant tumor of the stomach
  137. gasttoesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
  138. peptic ulcer
    open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum
  139. hernia
    protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
  140. anal fistula
    abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
  141. colonic polyposis
    polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
  142. colorectal cancer
    andenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both
  143. crohn disease
    chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
  144. diverticulosis
    abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall
  145. dysentery
    painful, inflamed intestines
  146. hemorrhoids
    swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
  147. ileus
    failure of the peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
  148. inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    inflammation of the colon and small intestine
  149. intussusception
    telescoping of the intestines
  150. irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
  151. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers
  152. volvulus
    twisting of the intestines on itself
  153. cirrhosis
    chronic degenerative disease of the liver
  154. pancreatic cancer
    malignant tumor of the pancreas
  155. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  156. viral hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
  157. cholelithiasis
    gallstones in the gallbladder
Card Set
med term ch 5
medical terminology has 200 eku chapter 5