An operational environment
composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander
is the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort
Unified land operations
describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gainand maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive,defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create theconditions for favorable conflict resolution
goal of unified land operations
apply landpower as part of unified action to defeat the enemy on land and establish conditions that achieve the joint force commander’s end state.
Purpose Unified land operations
how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations
What are the Foundations of ULO (MAID)?
- Decisive Action
- Army Core Competencies
- Mission Command
What are the Army Core Competencies?
- Combined Arms Maneuver
- Wide Area Security
Any combination of actors, entities, or forces that have the capability and intent to harm US forces, National Interests, or the homeland.
A party identified as hostile against which the use of force is authorized.
A party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against which the use of force may be envisaged.
A party identified as neither supporting nor opposing friendly or enemy forces.
The diverse and dynamic combination of regular forces, irregular forces, terrorist forces, and/or criminal elements unified to achieve mutually benefiting effects.
Army forces must synchronize actions to achieve _____ __ _____ that ensures mission accomplishment.
unity of effort
What is "the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort"?
Unified Action is synchronized with the activities of what?
Unified Action Partners
Type Unified Action Partners
- Military Organizations
- Government Organizations
- Non-Government Organizations
- Private Sector
Coordination between elements of DOD and US gov't agencies and departments for the purpose of achieving an objective.
Coordination among: DOD, US gov't agencies, State/territorial/Local/Tribal agencies, Foreign Mil/Gov agencies and IGO/NGO/Private sectors?
DoD interactions with foreign defense establishments to build defense relationships that promote strategic objectives.
- Develop allied/friendly military capabilities for self-defense & multinational ops
- Provide US forces w/ peacetime & contingency access to a host nation
- Build Relationships that promote US security interests
What are the three types of civilian organizations?
- Intergovernment Agencies
- Nongovernment Agencies
- Other Government Agencies
What is "created by a formal agreement between 2 or more govn't on a global, regional, or functional basis to protect or promote national interests shared by member states"?
What are private, self-governing, not-for-profit organization dedicated to alleviating human suffering; promoting education, health care, economic development, environ protection, human rights, and conflict resolution?
Other Government Agency
What is "a non DoD agency of the US government"?
What are the two types of Multinational Operations?
Relationship that results from a formal agreement between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interest of the members.
An arrangement between two or more nations for common action. Nations usually form these for focused, short-term purposes.
Name four agencies that are non-DoD agencies of the US government.
- US Dept of State
- Dept of Justice
- Dept of Transportation
- Dept of Agriculture
Army's primary mission is to _____, _____, and _____ forces to conduct prompt and sustained land combat operations.
organize, train, equip
Warfare carried out on land in a direct fire-fight supported by direct and indirect fire and other assets.
What three things must be defined when determining an Area of Operations?
- Area of Operations
- Area of Influence
- Area of Interest
The continuous, simultaneous combinations of the offense, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks
Conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain, resources, and population centers.
Conducted to defeat an enemy attack, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks.
Support host nation, interim government, or transitional military authority when not present.
Combined Arms Maneuver
Application of elements of combat power in unified action to defeat enemy ground forces; to seize, occupy, and defend land areas; and to achieve physical, temporal, and psychological advantages over the enemy to seize and exploit the initiative.
Wide Area Security
The application of the elements of combat power in unified action to protect populations, forces, infrastructure, and activities; to deny the enemy positions of advantage; and to consolidate gains in order to retain the initiative.
Tenets of ULO (FILADS)?
Series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space.
Series of tactical actions conducted by combat forces of a single or several services, coordinated in time and space, to achieve strategic or operational objectives in an operational area.
Creative thinking by commanders and staffs to design strategies, campaigns, and major operations and organize and employ military forces.
Conception and construction of the intellectual framework that underpins join operational plans (OPLANs) and their subsequent execution?
Principles of Joint Operations (MOOSE MUSS PRL)
- Economy of Force
- Unity of Command
Which Elements of Operational Art and Design are shared?
- Center of Gravity
- Decisive Points
- Lines of Operations / Lines of Effort
- Operational Reach
Commanders consideration factors in arranging operations
- Traveling Overwatch
- Bounding Overwatch
What are the characteristics of the defense?
- Mass and Concentration
How many, and what are the Defensive tasks?
- Area Defense
- Mobile Defense
What are the Defensive Control Measures?
- Battle Positions
- Direct Fire Control Measure
- Disengagement Line
- Fire Support Coordination Measures
- Forward Edge of the Battle Area (FEBA)
- Main Battle Area
A defensive location orientated on a likely enemy avenue of approach.
Direct Fire Control Measure (DFCM)
Means by which maneuver commanders employ and regulate direct fire.
Disengagement line (DL)
a Phase line that, when crossed by the enemy, signals to defending elements that it is time to displace to their next position.
Fire Support Coordination Measures (FSCM)
assists in the rapid engagement of targets and provide safeguards for friendly forces.
Forward Edge of the Battle Area (FEBA)
Coordinating area for fire support, positioning of forces, and the maneuver of units", "Forward-most area of troop deployment, excluding covering and screening forces
Main Battle Area
Area where the bulk of a unit's combat is deployed to conduct decisive operations to defeat an attacking enemy
What are the three forms of defense?
- Defense of a linear obstacle
- Perimeter Defense
- Reverse Slope Defense
Established when a unit must hold critical terrain or when it must defend itself in areas where the defense is not tied in with adjacent units.
What are the three steps of Transition to the Offense?
- Enemy Over-Extension
- Transitional Tasks
- Transitional Methods
What are the 2 types of transitional methods?
- Attack using forces not previously committed to the defense
- Attack using the currently defending forces.
What does Stability "aim" to do (goals)?
- Create legitimate, acceptable and predictable situations for local pop.
- Lessen levels of violence
- Enable functioning of govn't, economic and societal institutions
Who is responsible for the stability of the host nation?
What are the three-levels of engagement for addressing conflict?
- Conflict prevention and resolution
- Conflict intervention
- Post-conflict reconstruction and stabilization
Purpose of the Offense
- Impose the Commander's will on the enemy
- Defeat, destroy or neutralize the enemy
- Secure decisive terrain
- Deprive the enemy of resources
- Gain information
- Disrupt enemy's attack
- Set up conditions for future successful operations.
Characteristics of the offense
- Controlled Tempo
- Movement to Contact
Movement to Contact
Develops the situation to establish or regain contact, creates favorable conditions for subsequent action and is used when the enemy situation is vague.
Destroys enemy force, seizes or secures terrain, hasty or deliberate and uses METT-TC to determine type of attack
This usually follows successful attack, designed to disorganize, seeks to disintegrate enemy forces planned as branches or sequels at division or higher.
Designed to catch or cut off, prevents escape, aims to destroy, normally follows successful exploitation and used anytime the enemy is fleeing.
Tactical Enabling Tasks
- · Reconnaissance
- · Security Operations
- · Troop Movement
- · Relief in Place
- · Passage of Lines
- · Encirclement Operations
- · Urban Operations
Fundamentals of Reconnaissance
- · Ensure continuous reconnaissance
- · Do not keep reconnaissance assets in reserve
- · Orient on the reconnaissance objective
- · Report information rapidly andaccurately
- · Retain freedom of maneuver
- · Gain and maintain enemy contact
- · Develop the situation rapidly
Fundamentals of Urban Operations
- · Perform inform and influence activities aggressively
- · Maintain a close combat capability
- · Avoid the attrition approach
- · Control the essential
- · Minimize collateral damage
- · Preserve critical infrastructure
- · Separate the noncombatants from combatants
- · Transition control
- · Create a collaborative information environment
- ·Understand how Soldiers and civilians react under the pressure of combat in an urban environment
- · Restore essential services
Forms of Reconnaissance Operations
- · Route reconnaissance
- · Zone reconnaissance
- · Area reconnaissance
- · Reconnaissance in force
- · Special reconnaissance
the employment and ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each other
Relief in place:
an operation in which, by the direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area of operations by the incoming unit