Exam 5

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  1. Define bleb
    an out pouching of an alveolar sac which leads to subsequent rupture resulting in pneumothorax
  2. Define bradycardia
    arterial & ventricular rate of 60 beats per min or less
  3. define capillaries
    microscopic vessels designed to exchange nutrients & wastes between blood & tissue fluid around the cells
  4. Define cardiac catherization
    pass of a sterile catheter into the heart via the brachial or femoral artery for the purpose of image intensification
  5. Define cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart due to a collection of blood or fluid within the pericardium
  6. Define cardiomyopathy
    general term designating primary disease of the myocardium often obscure  or link etiology
  7. Define decortication of the lung
    surgical removal of fibrinous deposits on the visceral parietal pleura
  8. Define endarterectomy
    removal of plaque
  9. Define ischemia
    decrease in blood supply to tissue
  10. Define pectus excavatum
    refers to a congenital deformity of the chest that is funnel shaped
  11. Define pneumonectomy
    removal of lung
  12. Define pneumothorax
    accumulation of air in the pleural cavity
  13. Define systole
    contraction phase
  14. Define tachycardia
    arterial & ventricular rate of 100 beats per minute or more
  15. Define thoracic outlet syndrome
    compression of the subclavian & branch plexus usually caused by the 1st rib
  16. Define ventricular septal defect
  17. Know a major complication of decortication of the lung
    expect a lot of bleeding
  18. Know how many true ribs there are
  19. Know how pedal pulses are assessed
    Doppler probe
  20. Know how to transport a patient with a closed water-seal drainage system
    chest tube clamps should accompany the pt at all times
  21. Know the “pacemaker of the heart”
    SA Node
  22. Know the anatomy of the lungs
    Left lung has 2 lobes and Right lung has 3 lobes
  23. Know the antagonist to Heparin Sodium
    protamine sulfate
  24. Know the common artery bypass procedures
    • femoro-femoral
    • axilo-femoral
    • feromo-popitealo
  25. Know the function of the chordae tendinae
    attached to the valvular cusps & prevents valves from swinging back into the atria
  26. Know the location of the heart
    slightly to the left within the mediastinum
  27. Know the most common complaint in a patient with a thoracic aorta aneurysm
  28. Know the most common vessels used for hemodialysis
    Radial artery & cephalic vein
  29. Know the other name for the mitral valve
    bicuspid valve
  30. Know the parts of the sternum
    • superior to inferior
    • manubrium
    • body
    • xiphoid process
  31. Know the prime consideration in a ruptured AAA
    hemorrhage control
  32. Know the purpose of a femoral-popliteal bypass
    to restore blood flood to a lower limb
  33. Know the suture of choice for a graft to tissue anastomosis
  34. Know the three branches of the aortic arch
    • Brachiocephalic artery
    • Left common carotid artery
    • Left Subclavin artery
  35. Know what a “Greenfield filter insertion” would indicate the presence of
    emboli formation
  36. Know what a bulldog is used for
    clamping vessels
  37. Know what a Dietrich set includes
    • vascular clamp
    • scissors
    • dilator
  38. Know what a fogarty balloon catheter is used for
  39. Know what a mediastinoscope is used for
    view of lymph nodes or masses in the space that medially separates the pleural space
  40. Know what a Pleur-evac is used for
    closed water seal drainage
  41. Know what alveoli are
    microscopic air sacs clustered at the end of the bronchi
  42. Know what angiography is used for
    access peripheral vascular disease
  43. Know what arterial blood gases show
    tissue perfusion
  44. Know what artery supplies the wall of the left atrium and the left ventricle
    circumflex artery
  45. Know what blade is used to open a blood vessel
  46. Know what bone edges are trimmed with following a rib removal
    Stille-Luer rongeur
  47. Know what can be done to bypass an iliac artery obstruction
    fermoro- femoral
  48. Know what cyanotic defects are (examples)
    • tetralogy of fallot
    • transposition of the great vessels
    • Tricuspid atresia
  49. Know what dextran is for
    parentally to expand blood plasma volume
  50. Know what drug can be added to saline for irrigation during vascular procedures
  51. Know what drug suppresses vasospasms
    papaverine hydrochloride
  52. Know what enters the hilum of the lung on the medial surface
    • primary bronchi
    • pulmonary arteries veins
    • lymphatic vessels
  53. Know what hypothermia does during bypass
    reduces oxygen consumption
  54. Know what incision is most likely for open heart surgery
    median sternotomy
  55. Know what instrument initiates an arteriotomy
    #11 on 7 handle
  56. Know what instrument is needed after isolation of the femoral artery
    Right angle clamp
  57. Know what is commonly used to retract vessels
    decaron tape or vessel loops
  58. Know what monitoring the activated clotting time judges the need for reversal or addition of
  59. Know what papaverine hydrochloride is used for
    intraoperatively  for its antispasmotic affect on the smooth muscle of vessel walls
  60. Know what pledgets are used for
    reinforce the graft during vascular surgery
  61. Know what position a mediastinoscopy is performed in
    dorsal recumbent postion
  62. Know what position is used for a lobectomy
    postereolateral postion
  63. Know what scissors are used for intravascular access during an endarterectomy
  64. Know what sclerotherapy is used to treat
    varicose veins
  65. Know what self-retaining retractor would be used during a fem-pop
    weilaner retractor
  66. Know what structure closes after birth
    with the elimination of placental circulation the ducts arteriosis closes
  67. Know what surgery a tunneler would be used
    unilateral femoropopliteal bypass
  68. Know what sutures are used to suture vessels or vascular grafts
    polytertra fluoroethylene
  69. Know what the atrioventricular bundle is also called
    Bundle of his
  70. Know what the best study for overall size of heart is
    AP & lateral x-rays
  71. Know what the dilating balloon should be filled with in a balloon angioplasty
    duliated contrast medium
  72. Know what the intra-aortic balloon pump was designed for
    circulator support after cardiac surgery
  73. Know what the most common acquired valvular lesion is
    Mitral Stenosis
  74. Know what the pump oxygenator does
    assumes role of the heart & lungs while undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass
  75. Know what the term in situ graft means in vascular surgery
    autogenous graft
  76. Know what the tubes are for in a double chest tube placement
    the upper most tube is used to evacuate air/re-establish negative pressure
  77. Know what the typical suture gauge for femoral vascular anastomosis is
  78. Know what to anticipate when doing a lobectomy
    to use a chest tube & water seal drainage system
  79. Know what to tag delicate sutures with
    Rubber shod
  80. Know what truncus arteriosis is characterized by
    by a single
  81. Know what type of needle holder is used for a vascular anastomosis
  82. Know what type of needle is appropriate to close a blood vessel
  83. Know what type of suture is needed to close an arteriotomy
  84. Know what vessel is used to increase overall blood supply to the heart following a CABG
    Internal mammory artery
  85. Know what vessel loops are used for
    retraction of fine structures & blood vessels during
  86. Know what vessels are harvested for a CABG
    sapherious vein & internal mammary artery
  87. Know when we defibrillate
    if the pt is experiencing a cardiac arrhythemia specifically a ventricular fibrillation
  88. Know where bone wax is used after a sternotomy
    hemostatic agent place on the cut edges of the sternum
  89. Know where oxygenated blood leaves the lungs through
    pulmonary veins
  90. Know where the cannula is placed during cardiopulmonary bypass
    R atrium to achieve venous cannulation
  91. Know where the coronary arteries arise from
  92. Know where the coronary veins empty
    coronary sinus
  93. Know where the pacing generator is placed during a pacemaker insertion
    subcutaneous pocket on the upper anterior chest wall
  94. Know where the right common carotid artery originates from
    Brachiocephalic artery
  95. Know where the trachea divides
    at the carina into Right & Left bronchi
  96. Know which cyanotic defect is most common in children
    Tetralogy of Fallot
  97. Know which graft requires preclotting
    Porurus Dacron graft
  98. Know which portion of the heart pumps blood to the aorta
    Left ventricle
  99. Know which portion of the heart pumps blood to the pulmonary artery
    Right ventricle
  100. Know which portion of the heart receives deoxygenated blood
    Right Atrium
  101. Know which procedure may require temporary use of an intraoperative bypass shunt
    Carotid endarerectomy
  102. Know which procedure typically uses a Javid shunt
    carotid endarerectomy
  103. Know which veins receive blood from the brain, meninges, and deeper regions of the face and neck
    Right and left internal jugular veins
  104. Know why a Bailey is used following an open thoracotomy
    approximator is used to reapproximate the ribs
  105. Know why a knitted graft is preclotted
    minims the bleeding
  106. Know why Heparin is used
    added to saline as irrigation to prevent thrombosis
  107. Know why we employ hypothermia in cardiac surgery
    protects the heart from damage during CPB
  108. Understand a carotid endarterectomy
    • pt is supine
    • roll under scapula
    • head turned away from op site
    • last clamp removed Internal carotid artery
  109. Understand abdominal aneurysms
  110. Understand aortofemoral bypass
    • pt is prepped mid chest to mid thigh as far as possible on each side
    • circulator should ensure blood is avaible
    • 2-0 & 3-0 silk ties can be used to ligate larger deeper vessels
  111. Understand arterial emboli
    • can be formed be in the form of air blood fate or tumor
    • can lodge at the bifurcation & vessel narrowing & some can be treated with specialized enzymes or high dose of heparin
  112. Understand bronchoscopy
    • not a sterile procedure
    • best choice for removal of a foreign body from a child's trachobronchial tree
  113. Understand disposable chestdrainage
    unit provides drainage collection from intrapleural space maintains a seal to prevent air from entering the pleural cavity and provides suction control determined by water level
  114. Understand endarterectomies
    preformed to alleviate closure of artery
  115. Understand suture used for peripheral vascular surgery
    • peripheral vascular atomosis4-0
    • carotid endarerectomy 6-0
    • arteriotomy-polyprolene
    • graft to tissue atomosis is ti-cron
  116. Understand the characteristics of the vein
    Veins specialize structures call valves
  117. Understand the precautions taken when operating on a patient with a pacemaker
    when operating on a pt with pacemaker a bipolar ESU with its pt return electrode applied to the pt should be used
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Exam 5
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