EMT-Chapter 30-Musculoskeletal Trauma

  1. Three kinds of muscles
    • Voluntary(skeletal)
    • Involuntary(smooth)
    • Cardiac
  2. Tendons and Ligaments
    • Tendons connect muscle to bone
    • Ligaments connect bone to bone
    • Cartilage is an extension of the bone end
  3. Different types of motion
    • Flexion: bending motion that moves the extremities to the body
    • Extension: opposite of flexion
    • Adduction: movement of a body part towards the midline of the body
    • Abduction: opposite of adduction
    • Rotation
    • Circumduction: movement through an arc of a circle or in a circular motion from a central point
  4. Types of Injuries
    • Fracture: a broken bone, closed/open
    • Strain: an injury to a muscle or a muscle and tendon
    • Sprain: an injury to a joint capsule, with damage to or tearing of the connective tissue
    • Dislocation: the displacement of the bone from its normal position in a joint
  5. Pathological Fracture
    A broken bone resulting from a disease that causes bone degeneration.
  6. Osteoporosis
    A degenerative bone disorder associated with an accelerated loss of minerals, primarily Ca, from the bone
  7. Mechanism if Injury(MOI)
    • Direct Force: direct blow. Injuries from direct force occur at the point of impact.
    • Indirect Force: A force that causes some injury some distance away from the point of impact
    • Twisting Force: A force that twists a bone while one is held stationary
  8. Crepitus
    The sound or feel of broken fragments of bone against each other.
  9. 6 "Ps" when assessing extremity
    • Pain
    • Pallor: skin condition
    • Paralysis
    • Paresthesia:┬ánumbness or tingling sensation that indicates some loss of sensation
    • Pressure
    • Pulses
  10. Splint
    Any device used to immobilize a body part.
  11. General Rules of Splinting
    • Assess PMS before and after splinting.
    • Immobilize the joints below and above the injury.
    • Remove all clothing away from the injury site.
    • Cover all wounds
    • If one extremity that lacks pulse, one chance to align the extremity-if pain increases, stop
    • Do not push anything back
  12. Compartment Syndrome
    Tissue in a confined space causing decreased blood flow, leading to hypoxia and possible muscle, nerve, and vessel impairment.
Card Set
EMT-Chapter 30-Musculoskeletal Trauma