1. - Found in 1912
    -Fossil find represented an evolutionary missing link
    between apes and humans, since the combination of a human-like cranium
    with an ape-like jaw tended to support the notion then prevailing in
    England that human evolution began with the brain.
    -Significance of the specimen remained the subject of controversy until
    it was exposed in 1953 as a forgery, consisting of the lower jawbone of
    an orangutan deliberately combined with the skull of a fully developed modern human.
    Piltdown Man
  2. -Discovered in 1924 and estimated to be around 2.5 myo
    -Fossilised skull of a young Australopithecus africanus individual
    -Originally thought to be about six years old because of the presence of
    deciduous teeth, but is now believed to have been 3–4 based on studies of rates of enamel deposition.
    -Stood 3'6" and weighed 20-24 lbs and had a cranial capacity of 400-500 cc and lived in a savannah habitat
    -Showed that the fossil's foramen magnum was located beneath the cranium, showing the creature stood upright (evidence of bipedality)
    Taung Child
  3. -AL 288-1
    -Discovered in 1974
    -Several hundred pieces of bone representing about 40% of the skeleton of a female Australopithecus afarensis.
    -Classified as a hominin that lived 3.2 mya
    -Skeleton shows evidence of small skull capacity akin to that of apes and of bipedal upright walk akin to that of humans, supporting the debated view that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size in human evolution
    -3 ft 7in tall, weighed 64 lbs, looked like a modern chimpanzee but the pelvis and leg bones were similar in function compared to those of a modern human
  4. -Excavated by Mary Leaky in 1978.
    -Evidence that bipedalism preceded enlarged brains in hominids.
    -Althoughit is highly debated, it is believed the individuals who made these impressions belonged to the species Australopithecus afarensis.
    -Impression has been interpreted as the same as the modern human stride, with the heel striking first and then a weight transfer to the ball of the foot before pushing off the toes
    Laetoli footprints
  5. -DIK-1/1
    -Fossilized skull and other skeletal remains of a three-year-old Australopithecus afarensis female, whose bones were first found in Ethiopia in 2000
    -She has often been nicknamed "Lucy's baby"
    -Dated at 3.3 mya
    Dikika Baby (Selam)
  6. -Common name is "Flat Faced Man" or "Flat Faced"
    -Dated at 3.5 mya and discovered in 1999 this fossil is controversial over the origin of the species. Most commonly grouped as Kenyanthropus platyops, the fossil also resembles Australopithecus afarensis
    KNM -WT 40,000
  7. -Common name is "The Black Skull"
    -Species Paranthropus aethiopicus
    -Estimated to be 2.5 million years old. It is an adult with an estimated cranial capacity of  410 cc. Its characteristics include a robust build with a prominent sagittal crest. Its  coloration is due to the high manganese content of the material it was embedded in.
    KNM-WT 17000
  8. -Common name is "Nutcracker Man" or "Dear Boy"
    -Species Paranthropus boisei
    -Discovered by Mary Leaky in 1959
    -Characterized by large sagittal crest on the top of the skull, a flat face formed by large zygomatic arches positioned far forward and megadont cheek teeth. Also has wide zygomatic arches which project forward of the nasal opening and form the dished-shape face
    OH 5
  9. -Catalog number STW 573
    -Found in South Africa and dated between 2.2 to 3.3 mya
    -Australopithecus, species uncertain (thought to belong to a unique Australopithecus species called A. prometheus)
    "Little Foot"
  10. - Species Homo hablis
    -Discovered in Kenya and dated about 1.9 mya
    -Characteristics include an overall smaller size than other Homo habilis finds, but with a fully adult and typical H. habilis morphology.
    -It is an adult with an estimated cranial capacity of only 510 cc.
    KNM-ER 1813
  11. -Species is Homo rudolfensis
    -Cranial capacity of around 700 cc
    -Large cranium with a long, wide, flat face. Had large teeth and the skull that lacked the massive jaw muscle features characteristic of robust australopithecines.

    -Much debate as to which species it should be categorized as
    KNM-ER 1470
  12. -Fossilized Homo erectus skull
    -Found at the site of Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia
    -Has less robust and thinner browridge, a projecting lower face and a relatively larger upper canine; cranial capacity is small estimated at 600 cc
    D2700 or Specimen 2700
  13. -Common name is "Turkana Boy"
    -Species Homo ergaster
    -Age of species is about 8 years old, 5ft and 3 in tall. The shape of the pelvis identifies that the specimen was a male.
    -Skeleton had features such as a low sloping forehead, strong brow ridges, and the absence of a chin.
    -Brain capacity is estimated at 880 cc.
    -Arms and legs are slightly longer indicating effective bipedality.
    -This specimen is the most complete early human skeleton ever found. It is 1.5 million years old.
    KNM WT 15000
  14. -Species is Homo erectus and dated around 1.7 mya
    - Fossil is of a female' s femur
    -An abnormal outer layer of bone on her thigh shows evidence of bleeding just before death due to Vitamin A poisoning, perhaps from eating a carnivore's liver.
    KNM-ER 1808
  15. -Found in the Zagros Mountains in Iraq
    -Elderly Neanderthal male known as ‘Nandy’ to its excavators
    -Aged between 40 and 50 years
    -Displayed severe signs of deformity; At some point in his life he had suffered a violent blow to the left side of his face, creating a crushing fracture to his left orbit which would have left him blind in one eye.He also suffered from a withered right arm which had been fractured in several places and healed, but which caused the loss of his lower arm and hand. This is thought to be either congenital, a result of childhood disease and trauma or due to an amputation later in his life. The arm had healed but the injury may have caused some paralysis down his right side, leading to deformities in his lower legs and foot and would have resulted in him walking with a pronounced, painful limp.
    -All these injuries were acquired long before death, showing extensive healing and this has been used to infer that Neanderthals looked after their sick and aged, denoting implicit group concern.
    Shanidar 1
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