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  1. Name the three parts to "Mosiac evolution"
    • large brain size
    • bipedalism
    • tool making
  2. Name some reasons to why people hypothesized that "bipedalism came first"
    • More efficent for cooling effects
    • Freed hands for carrying
    • Predator avoidance
    • Walking long distances
    • Dietary adaptation
    • Sexual signaling
  3. Give examples of "primitive traits" (8)
    • internal chin (long simian shelf)
    • sectoral premolar
    • projecting canines
    • parallel sided teeth
    • facial prognathism
    • postorbital constriction
    • high sexual dimorphism
    • smaller brain size
  4. The newest A. afarensis find was a ______ and it was discovered in ______
    baby ; Ethiopia
  5. Name 4 anatomical regions in the body changed by bipedalism
    • pelvis
    • spine
    • knee joint
    • foot
  6. Describe the anatomical changes for bipedalism in the pelvis (5)
    • wide, flaring ilium
    • long femoral neck
    • abductor muscles (gluteal muscles)
    • short wider sacrum
    • ability to wiggle
  7. describe the anatomical changes for bipedalism in the spine (3)
    • number of vertebrae in each region
    • lumbar vertebrae size
    • curvature of spine
  8. Describe the anatomical changes for bipedalism in the foot (5)
    • larger tarsals
    • long metatarsals
    • straight, short phalanges
    • lontigudinal arch
    • non opposable big toe
  9. Humans and all their ancestors and relatives AFTER the split with any other ape lineage are referred to as
  10. Name (8) cranial characteristics of hominids
    • Canine teeth relatively small and incisiform
    • Forward placed foramen magnum
    • No shearing complex
    • First premolar is double rooted (bicuspid)
    • Molars with thick enamel
    • Mastoid process present
    • Temporal origins forward on cranium
    • Parabolic dental arcade
  11. The Rift Valley in eastern Africa is characterized by active volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building over the last several million years making it a great place to find hominin fossils. Name the countries that make up the Rift Valley.
    Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania
  12. What features of A. afarensis show that it was bipedal?
    • Wide pelvis
    • Angled Femur
    • Tibia surface
  13. The earliest potential hominins come from where and what time?
    Between 7-5 mya and they were found in North central and Eastern Africa
  14. What three species are amongst the earliest forms of hominins?
    • Ardipithecus ramidus
    • Orronrin tugenensis
    • Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  15. The species ___ ___ is the first member of the genus Australopithecus and is well known from fossils dating from 4.5 - 3.9 mya. This hominin displays adaptations to bipedality but shares some upper body arboreal adaptations and dental features with earlier possible hominin forms.
    A. anamensis
  16. Two subspecies of _____ _____ lived across a span of nearly 1 mya in east Africa. They combine hominin like lower anatomy with apelike cranial and dental anatomy
    Ardipithecus ramidus
  17. Fossils of ___ ______ date from approximately 3.9  to 3.0 mya. This hominin was bipedal but may have used arboreal environments as well. It shares many anatomical similarities with A. anamensis but has smaller canine teeth and reduced canine/premolar shearing complex relative to previous hominins.
    A. afarensis
  18. _____ ______ is a hominin species that lived at the same time as A. aferensis and may have lived in the same area as well. We have little information of this fossil species
    Kenyanthropus platyops
  19. ___ _______ had a varied but primarily vegetarian diet, probably used wood and other minimally modified tools, displayed significant variation in body size, may have displayed significant sexual dimorphism and probably lived in social groups consisting of multiple adults and young
    A. afarensis
  20. The ____ epoch was characterized by change in assemblages of animals across different areas of the planet. During this period, climatic changes led to geological events. North and South America became connected and Mediterranean basin began to fil up. Overall, the climate was warmer and sea levels were higher than the previous epoch.
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